two cities
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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Denae Ford ◽  
Margaret-Anne Storey ◽  
Thomas Zimmermann ◽  
Christian Bird ◽  
Sonia Jaffe ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the world to its core and has provoked an overnight exodus of developers who normally worked in an office setting to working from home. The magnitude of this shift and the factors that have accompanied this new unplanned work setting go beyond what the software engineering community has previously understood to be remote work. To find out how developers and their productivity were affected, we distributed two surveys (with a combined total of 3,634 responses that answered all required questions) weeks apart to understand the presence and prevalence of the benefits, challenges, and opportunities to improve this special circumstance of remote work. From our thematic qualitative analysis and statistical quantitative analysis, we find that there is a dichotomy of developer experiences influenced by many different factors (that for some are a benefit, while for others a challenge). For example, a benefit for some was being close to family members but for others having family members share their working space and interrupting their focus, was a challenge. Our surveys led to powerful narratives from respondents and revealed the scale at which these experiences exist to provide insights as to how the future of (pandemic) remote work can evolve.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
M. Esteban Muñoz H. ◽  
Marijana Novak ◽  
Sharon Gil ◽  
Joke Dufourmont ◽  
Esther Goodwin Brown ◽  

The methodology presented in this paper produces a circular economy jobs (CE jobs) measure. Using jobs as a proxy indicator, these measure gives cities a robust number to indicate progress toward the circular economy and is designed to serve as a first step in developing a circular economy strategy. The CE jobs measure tracks the inputs and outputs of goods in a city's “boundaries” through the material import dependency of the city's economic sectors. At the same time, tracking and assessing the circularity of the local jobs in these economic sectors will also provide city leaders with an indication of which sectors circularity is happening and could potentially happen. This paper also concludes that the process of coming to the CE jobs has two parts, the first more relevant to the local government and the second better influenced by the national government. Both need to come together for a truly circular local economy to happen.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 323
Jelena M. Djoković ◽  
Ružica R. Nikolić ◽  
Jan Bujnak ◽  
Branislav Hadzima ◽  
Filip Pastorek ◽  

The necessity of having windows on any building’s façade is not questionable. However, not every window is suitable for any building. The selection of an adequate window must include the analysis of various factors—the most important ones are the type of window (e.g., single or double glazing); filling gas in cavities (e.g., air, argon or some other gas); and placing, i.e., orientation of a window on a façade (facing north, south, or east, etc.). The research presented in this paper is dealing with the calculation of the window thermal loading for the cities of Kragujevac and Bor in Serbia and Žilina in Slovakia. These three cities were selected because they belong to different climate regions, according to the Köppen–Geiger climatic classification. The first two cities in Serbia belong to the same region Cf with difference only in the category of summer—Kragujevac Cfa and Bor Cfb—while the third city—Žilina in Slovakia—belongs to the Dfb region. The calculated thermal loading through the window was obtained as a sum of the thermal loading due to the heat conduction and thermal loading due to the solar radiation. The objective was to find the optimal window construction and orientation of a building’s façade for each of these cities, by varying the type of the window, its frame material and the filling gas. The results show that for the first two cities in Serbia, there is a difference in the window frame material in the optimal window construction, while for the third city (Žilina in Slovakia), the results are the same as for the second city (Bor in Serbia) despite the fact that they belong to different climate regions (Cfb and Dfb, respectively). These results support the fact that the climate affects the optimal window construction for any city/region in the world.

Supriya Dam

Since 2006, Sikkim progressively switching to a full-fledged tourism-centred state having declared it a predominant industry as an engine for its economic growth. The state accounted for the highest influx of foreign tourists amongst the eight north eastern states of India during the last 20 years or so. The smart city mission was commissioned by government of India as a centrally sponsored scheme destined to provide financial support for the allotted cities to the extent of INR. 100 Crore per city per year spanning over five years. Studies suggest that induction of smart city concept will act as precursor for growth of smart tourism destinations (STDs) across the country. The STD as a concept revolves around “6A's,” an essential ingredient for promoting smart tourism in destinations. Incidentally, two cities in Sikkim have been enlisted amongst the top 100 cities in India for promoting smart city, instrumental in promoting STD in tourism-driven states. The chapter delves into the concept of smart city as an antecedent for promoting STD along with conditions with respect to Sikkim.

Elvin Shava ◽  
Shikha Vyas Doorgapersad

The article was based on an interpretive paradigm, which adopts a qualitative desktop review approach. Various document sources that inform 4IR and talent management within the local government context in South Africa were employed. The two cities of Johannesburg and Ekurhuleni were used as case studies to examine their talent management strategies in the 4IR. The analysis of documents has shown that the 4IR can enable accelerated delivery of services; increase access to services; improve community participation; and more significant social accountability. Nevertheless, some municipalities in South Africa do not have enough resources and skills capacity to implement ICT/4IR measures to improve services; hence managing talent in key technical jobs has become an impediment. The absence of institutional readiness among local municipalities is a huge deterrent to managing talent needed to drive service delivery in the 4IR. The study concludes that to achieve efficient public service delivery within the 4IR, local municipalities should retain talent to manage the digital technologies that demand skilled expertise. The article recommends the government develop policies that offer guidance to local municipalities on managing specified sets of talents that are deemed crucial to enhancing socio-economic development in the 4IR.

2021 ◽  
Vol 60 (4) ◽  
pp. 7-21
Karim Zehmed ◽  
Fouad Jawab

The Moroccan government has recently promoted sustainable public transport projects such as tramway services namely in the two largest cities of country, Casablanca and Rabat-Salé. Since its launch, the tramway service is in-creasingly present in citizens' daily lives in both cities. To maintain its attractiveness, operators and transport authori-ties should examine the performance of tramway service from user’s point of view. That is, an in-depth understanding of how passengers perceive service quality and what make them satisfied. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of tramway service in the two cities based on the opinions of a sample size of 613 and 435 individuals in each city. The outcome of this peer comparison allows to determine the strengths and weaknesses of provided service and identify priorities for improvement in each city. Regarding the methodology, we adopted a two-step approach to achieve our research purpose. The first stage intends to compare users' perceptions regarding Service Quality Attrib-utes (SQAs) and overall satisfaction and to identify any significant differences between the two cities. To this end, we applied, in the first stage, a student t-test of two independent samples. The second stage employs an ordered probit regression model to identify the most important SQA; i.e., which most influence the overall satisfaction, and improve-ments priorities for the current service tramway. The results showed that, in average, passengers found service quality as good and are satisfied with tramway service in both cities. Tram vehicles’ is the best appreciated service attribute in both cities while Comfort in Rabat-Salé and Lines’ connectivity in Casablanca are the least appreciated. Moreover, the service performance of Rabat-Salé tramway exceeds that of Casablanca tramway in terms of service Availability, ser-vice Reliability, Fares level, Tram vehicle, Drivers’ competence, Lines’ connectivity, and overall satisfaction. On the other hand, we found that among top six important attributes, Reliability and Administrators should be prioritized for improvement in Casablanca; and staff, Lines, Comfort, and Administrators in Rabat-Salé. Results showed that im-provements in all these service aspects would increase significantly overall user’s satisfaction.

2021 ◽  
pp. 107049652110637
Hanbee Lee ◽  
Eunkyoung Choi ◽  
Eungkyoon Lee

This comparative case study explores why two cities similar in socio-economic factors diverge in their pathways to environmental improvement. Our research looks at the changing local economies and environmental pollution problems facing Kitakyushu in Japan and Pohang in South Korea. Both cities drove their nations’ rapid economic growth as the main heavy industry hubs but have performed radically differently vis-à-vis public demands for environmental improvement despite sharing much in common. Employing the advocacy coalition framework as a main analytical tool, we examine the unfolding of policy efforts to turn a manufacturing-oriented industrial city into a “greener” city responding to environmental objectives and the respective outcomes. The research reveals that variations in regulatory decentralization, external events and coalition opportunity structures largely explain the observed discrepancy in green transition between the two settings. Our findings contribute to expanding scarce case study literature illustrating the mechanisms that can underpin environmental improvements in cities that have served as the location of heavy industries and offer suggestions for advancing them.

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