selective extraction
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Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 90
Salar Bahrami ◽  
Leila Dolatyari ◽  
Hassan Shayani-Jam ◽  
Mohammad Reza Yaftian ◽  
Spas D. Kolev

A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) composed of 50 wt% base polymer poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene), 40 wt% extractant Aliquat® 336, and 10 wt% dibutyl phthalate as plasticizer/modifier provided the efficient extraction of vanadium(V) (initial concentration 50 mg L−1) from 0.1 M sulfate solutions (pH 2.5). The average mass and thickness of the PIMs (diameter 3.5 cm) were 0.057 g and 46 μm, respectively. It was suggested that V(V) was extracted as VO2SO4− via an anion exchange mechanism. The maximum PIM capacity was estimated to be ~56 mg of V(V)/g for the PIM. Quantitative back-extraction was achieved with a 50 mL solution of 6 M H2SO4/1 v/v% of H2O2. It was assumed that the back-extraction process involved the oxidation of VO2+ to VO(O2)+ by H2O2. The newly developed PIM, with the optimized composition mentioned above, exhibited an excellent selectivity for V(V) in the presence of metallic species present in digests of spent alumina hydrodesulfurization catalysts. Co-extraction of Mo(VI) with V(V) was eliminated by its selective extraction at pH 1.1. Characterization of the optimized PIM was performed by contact angle measurements, atomic-force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis/derivatives thermogravimetric analysis and stress–strain measurements. Replacement of dibutyl phthalate with 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether improved the stability of the studied PIMs.

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Christian Voelter ◽  
Joachim Rösler

By coarsening of the γ’-precipitates and selective extraction of one of the two existing phases, porous structures can be produced from nickel-based superalloys. There are two basic approaches to achieve a bicontinuous γ/γ’-microstructure—directional and incoherent coarsening. Single crystalline superalloy membranes are produced by the so-called rafting of the microstructure, i.e., directional coarsening. Unlike this process, incoherently coarsened membranes lack a detailed understanding of the mechanisms leading to cross-linking of the precipitates. In this paper, the growth and coalescence of precipitates during initial slow cooling from above the γ’ solvus temperature was studied. In addition to the three-dimensional morphological changes of the precipitates, it is also shown that only little coalescence of the particles occurs despite the high γ’ content and, therefore, their very small distance. The loss of coherency that occurs during this part of coarsening must first advance through further aging before a bicontinuous microstructure is formed.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 153
Francesco Cairone ◽  
Stefania Cesa ◽  
Alessia Ciogli ◽  
Giancarlo Fabrizi ◽  
Antonella Goggiamani ◽  

The aim of this work was to develop innovative and sustainable extraction, concentration, and purification technologies aimed to recover target substances from corn oil, obtained as side stream product of biomass refineries. Residues of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and polyphenols could be extracted from this matrix and applied as ingredients for food and feeds, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products. These molecules are well known for their antioxidant and antiradical capacity, besides other specific biological activities, generically involved in the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases. The project involved the development of methods for the selective extraction of these minor components, using as suitable extraction technique solid phase extraction. All the extracted and purified fractions were evaluated by NMR spectroscopic analyses and UV–Vis spectrophotometric techniques and characterized by quali-quantitative HPLC analyses. TPC (total phenolic content) and TFC (total flavonoid content) were also determined. DPPH and ABTS radical were used to evaluate radical quenching abilities. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), amylase, glucosidase, and tyrosinase were selected as enzymes in the enzyme inhibitory assays. The obtained results showed the presence of a complex group of interesting molecules with strong potential in market applications according to circular economy principles.

2022 ◽  
pp. 134623
Zhongyue Li ◽  
Ruomeng Zhu ◽  
Pengling Zhang ◽  
Mei Yang ◽  
Ruiqi Zhao ◽  

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Katja Götze ◽  
Roland Haseneder ◽  
Andreas Siegfried Braeuer

Focusing on the selective extraction of the critical raw materials indium and germanium from real bioleaching solutions, extended studies have been carried out using Europe’s first underground hybrid membrane pilot plant (TRL6). In order to transfer former laboratory experiments to pilot scale, NF99 (Alfa Laval) was used for the evaluation of membrane permeance and ion retention. A performance test of microfiltration (MF) and nanofiltration (NF) showed high permeances with low root-mean-square deviation under feed variation (5.2% for MF, 4.7% for NF). Depending on the feed load, a significant permeance drop of up to 57% for MF (3 bar) and 26% for NF (10 bar, 1.1 m s−1) was observed. The NF retention performance showed that, without regular chemical cleaning, the selectivity between the target elements degraded. By introducing acidic-basic cleaning steps, it was possible to keep the retention behavior at an approximately constant level (In 91.0 ± 1.3%; Ge 18.2 ± 5.5%). In relation to the specified target, the best results could be achieved at low pressure (7.5 bar) and a maximum overflow velocity of 1.1 m s−1, with a retention of 88.4% for indium and 8.8% for germanium. Moreover, the investigations proved the functionality and long-term stability of the underground membrane device.

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