Genome engineering with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology offers the unique potential for unequivocally deleting allergen genes at the source. Compared to prior gene editing approaches, CRISPR boasts substantial improvements in editing efficiency, throughput, and precision. CRISPR has demonstrated success in several clinical applications such as sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, and preliminary knockout studies of allergenic proteins using CRISPR editing show promise. Given the advantages of CRISPR, as well as specific DNA targets in the allergen genes, CRISPR gene editing is a viable approach for tackling allergy, which may lead to significant disease improvement. This review will highlight recent applications of CRISPR editing of allergens, particularly cat allergen Fel d 1, and will discuss the advantages and limitations of this approach compared to existing treatment options.
Background: Pollution induced allergic rhinitis and respiratory symptoms is becoming a major health problem in the world for which still there is no safe and preventive treatment. Objectives: Conceive and evaluate the allergen preventive properties and clinical efficacy of an osmotic, polymeric, stable filmogen spray, called PCNS. Materials and Methods: Amb A 1 (ragweed), Der P 1 and 2 (dust mite), Bet v 1 (birch), Alt a 1 (Alternaria, fungus), and Fel d 1 (cat dander) allergens were exposed at a concentration of 5µg/ml (20 µl per tube) on the polymeric test product film (120 and 240µl layer) and the allergens crossing the barrier were quantified in the agar gel beneath the film. 0.40% HPMC and PBS solutions, tested identically, served as controls. Clinical efficacy of PCNS nasal spray was evaluated in patients suffering from allergic rhinitis and/or respiratory symptoms (29 in test product v/s 15 in saline controls) for 22 days. Nasal, ocular, respiratory symptoms and Rhino conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) were measured. Statistical analyses: The normality of the populations was determined by the Shapiro-Wilk test, then statistical analysis was performed by two-tailed Student’s test for comparisons between two groups and the two-way ANOVA followed by the post hoc Bonferroni’s test for comparisons of multiple groups. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The analyses were performed with the software GraphPad Prism (version 8.4.2, La Jolla, USA). NS indicates not significant. Results: PCNS polymeric spray blocked the diffusion of all the allergens while 0.40% HPMC was able to prevent diffusion of only Alt a 1 and Fel d 1 allergens. Mean reflective total nasal symptom scores (rTNSS), reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS), and respiratory symptoms including effect on wheezing, cough, dyspnea, and chest tightness were moderately improved in the control saline group, but the improvements were nearly twice better in the PCNS group. RQLQ was improved by 23% in saline spray v/s 46% PCNS group. 4/15 patients in saline group v/s 1/29 in PCNS group required rescue medication during the study. PCNS was highly effective in reducing allergen and pollution induced respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: a polymeric, osmotic, and stable nasal barrier against pollutants and allergens represents an innovative approach against pollution induced respiratory symptoms.
Scientists and technicians who work in contact with laboratory animals are exposed to complex biological mixtures from animals, bedding and feed. The main objective of this study was to characterize the exposures to endotoxins and animal allergens in a biomedical research institution located in Central Italy by means of air sampling in the breathing zone of the staff during daily work activities. Forty-two inhalable dust samples were collected for endotoxins and allergens analysis. Filter extracts were analyzed using a Kinetic-QCL LAL kit for endotoxins; ELISA assays were performed for Mus m 1, Rat n 1, Can f 1, Fel d 1 and Equ c 4 detection. Laboratory animal attendants (LAAs) showed endotoxin concentrations significantly higher (4.59 ng/m3) than researchers (0.57 ng/m3), researchers working only in an office (0.56 ng/m3) and technicians (0.37 ng/m3). Endotoxin concentrations exceeding the recommended occupational exposure limit proposed by the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety were found in the case of two subjects in the animal attendants category. With regards to rat and mouse allergens, a higher average dose was found for mouse than rat allergens. Also for these bio-contaminants, the LAAs are confirmed as the work category at higher risk of exposure (15.85 ng/m3), followed by technicians (10.67 ng/m3), researchers (2.73 ng/m3) and researchers in an office (0.08 ng/m3). Fel d 1 was also detected (average: 0.11 ng/m3) highlighting a passive transport between living and occupational settings. Our data could be useful to improve the control and preventive measures, ensuring lower levels of allergens and endotoxins in animal facilities.
Background and aim: Progress in laboratory diagnostics of IgE-mediated allergy is the use of component-resolved diagnosis. Our study analyses the results of specific IgE to 295 allergen reagents (117 allergenic extracts and 178 molecular components) in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD) with the use of ALEX2 Allergy Explorer. Method: The complete dermatological and allergological examination, including the examination of the sensitization to molecular components with ALEX2 Allergy Explorer testing, was performed. The statistical analysis of results was performed with these methods: TURF (total unduplicated reach and frequency), best reach and frequency by group size, two-sided tests, Fisher’s exact test, and chi-square test (at an expected minimum frequency of at least 5). Results: Altogether, 100 atopic dermatitis patients were examined: 48 men, 52 women, the average age 40.9 years, min. age 14 years, max. age 67 years. The high and very high level of specific IgE was reached in 75.0% of patients to 18 molecular components: from PR-10 proteins (Aln g 1, Bet v 1, Cor a1.0103, Cor a1.0401, Fag s 1), lipocalin (Can f 1), NPC2 family (Der f 2, Der p 2), uteroglobin (Fel d 1), from Alternaria alternata (Alt a 1), Beta expansin (Lol p 1, Phl p 1), molecular components from Timothy, cultivated rye (Secc pollen) and peritrophin-like protein domain Der p 23. The high and very high level of specific IgE to other lipocalins (Fel d 7, Can f 4), to arginine kinase (Bla g 9, German cockroach), and to allergen extracts Art v (mugwort), and Cyn d (Bermuda grass) reached 52.0% of patients. The severity of AD is in significant relation to the sensitization to molecular components of storage mites (Gly d 2, Lep d 2—NPC2 family), lipocalins (Can f 1, Can f 2, Can f 4, and Can f 6), arginine kinase (Asp f 6, Bla g 9, Der p 20, Pen m 2), uteroglobin (Fel d 1, Ory c 3), Mn superoxide dismutase (Mala s 11), PR-10 proteins (Fag s 1, Mal d 1, Cor a 1.0401, Cor a 1.0103), molecular components of the peritrophin-like domain (Der p 21, Der p 23), and to Secc pollen. In the subgroup of patients suffering from bronchial asthma, the significant role play molecular components from house dust mites and storage mites (Lep d 2, Der p 2, Der f 2—NPC2 family), cysteine protease (Der p 1), peritrophin-like protein domain (Der p 21, Der p 23), enolase from Alternaria alternata (Alt a 6), and Beta expansin Phl p 1. Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate the detailed profile of sensitization to allergens reagents (allergen extract and molecular components) in patients with atopic dermatitis. We show the significance of disturbed epidermal barrier, resulting in increased penetration of allergens. We confirmed the significant relationship between the severity of AD, the occurrence of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis, and high levels of specific IgE to allergen reagents. Our results may be important for regime measures and immunotherapy; Der p 23 shall be considered as an essential component for the diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of house dust mite allergy.