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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-26
Takeshi Goya ◽  
Koji Imoto ◽  
Shigeki Tashiro ◽  
Tomomi Aoyagi ◽  
Motoi Takahashi ◽  

The increasing number of patients with fatty liver disease is a major health problem. Fatty liver disease with metabolic dysfunction has been recognized as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although there is no standard therapy for NAFLD, previous reports support the effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on NAFLD. Recently, fatty liver disease with metabolic dysfunction was proposed to be defined as a novel concept, “metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD)”, and it was proposed that new criteria for MAFLD diagnosis be established. To clarify the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on MAFLD, we analyzed the efficacy of tofogliflozin in patients with MAFLD. We conducted a single-center, retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy of tofogliflozin in patients with MAFLD treated at Kyushu University Hospital between 2017 and 2019. Tofogliflozin was used to treat 18 patients with MAFLD. To determine the efficacy of tofogliflozin, we evaluated glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, liver injury, hepatic steatosis, and body composition three and six months after drug initiation. Although our study was a preliminary study because of some limitations (e.g., retrospective, observational, single-arm study, small sample size), we show that tofogliflozin could improve liver injury in patients with MAFLD by improving glucose metabolism and insulin resistance without causing muscle loss.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Marta Torres-Arrese ◽  
Gonzalo García de Casasola-Sánchez ◽  
Manuel Méndez-Bailón ◽  
Esther Montero-Hernández ◽  
Marta Cobo-Marcos ◽  

Background and Objectives: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a common disease and a cause of high morbidity and mortality, constituting a major health problem. The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of multiorgan ultrasound in identifying pulmonary hypertension (PH), a major prognostic factor in patients admitted due to AHF, and assess whether there are significant changes in the venous excess ultrasonography (VE × US) score or femoral vein Doppler at discharge. Materials and Methods: Patients were evaluated with a standard protocol of lung ultrasound, echocardiography, inferior vena cava (IVC) and hepatic, portal, intra-renal and femoral vein Doppler flow patterns at admission and on the day of discharge. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled during November 2021. The mean age was seventy-nine years (Standard Deviation–SD 13.4). Seven patients (23.3%) had a worsening renal function during hospitalization. Regarding ultrasound findings, VE × US score was calculated at admission and at discharge, unexpectedly remaining unchanged or even worsened (21 patients, 70.0%). The area under the curve for the lung score was 83.9% (p = 0.008), obtaining a cutoff value of 10 that showed a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 71.4% in the identification of intermediate and high PH. It was possible to monitor significant changes between both exams on the lung score (16.5 vs. 9.3; p < 0.001), improvement in the hepatic vein Doppler pattern (2.4 vs. 2.1; p = 0.002), improvement in portal vein Doppler pattern (1.7 vs. 1.4; p = 0.023), without significant changes in the intra-renal vein Doppler pattern (1.70 vs. 1.57; p = 0.293), VE × US score (1.3 vs. 1.1; p = 0.501), femoral vein Doppler pattern (2.4 vs. 2.1; p = 0.161) and IVC collapsibility (2.0 vs. 2.1; p = 0.420). Conclusions: Our study results suggest that performing serial multiorgan Point-of-Care ultrasound can help us to better identify high and intermediate probability of PH patients with AHF. Currently proposed multi-organ, venous Doppler scanning protocols, such as the VE × US score, should be further studied before expanding its use in AHF patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Martin Chavant ◽  
Zoï Kapoula

Presbycusis, physiological age-related hearing loss, is a major health problem because it is the most common cause of hearing impairment, and its impact will grow in the coming years with the aging population. Besides auditory consequences, the literature recently found an association between hearing loss and cognitive decline over the last two decades, emphasizing the importance of the early detection of presbycusis. However, the current hearing tests are not sufficient to detect presbycusis in some cases. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of this association are still under discussion, calling for a new field of research on that topic. In that context, this study investigates for the first time the interaction between presbycusis, eye movement latency and Stroop scores for a normal aging population. Hearing abilities, eye movement latency and the Stroop Victoria test were measured for 69 elderly (mean 66.7 ± 8.4) and 30 young (mean 25.3 ± 2.7) participants. The results indicated a significant relationship between saccade latency and speech audiometry in the silence score, independently from age. These promising results suggest common attentional mechanisms between speech processing and saccade latency. The results are discussed regarding the relationship between hearing and cognition, and regarding the perspective of expanding new tools for presbycusis diagnosis.

Ayachit Kesharwani ◽  
Imran Khan ◽  
Mohit Awasthi ◽  
Ravija Prasad

Geriatric population (> 60 years) is rapidly increasing in India, It has been increased upto 8.6% in 2011. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder and a major health problem, a?ecting a large section of the Indian population, especially as its incidence increases with advancing age. Host of complications are associated with this disease, one of which is the e?ect on platelet count.  This study compares platelet count between diabetic and non-diabetic elderly.  It is observed that Hyperglycaemia in diabetic persons is responsible for increased Thrombopoietin production at the cellular level, which leads to raised platelet count -Reticulated Thrombocytosis – when compared to non diabetics. Platelets, especiallyreticulated thrombocytes are associated with uncontrolled blood sugar levels in the body and are well known for their role in artherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Keywords: platelet count, diabetic and non-diabetic & geriatric.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 747
Meihui Wang ◽  
Zixu Wang ◽  
Yaoxing Chen ◽  
Yulan Dong

The rapid growth of obesity worldwide has made it a major health problem, while the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity has had a significant impact on the magnitude of chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in developing countries. A vast amount of researchers have reported a strong relationship between obesity and chronic kidney disease, and obesity can serve as an independent risk factor for kidney disease. The histological changes of kidneys in obesity-induced renal injury include glomerular or tubular hypertrophy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or bulbous sclerosis. Furthermore, inflammation, renal hemodynamic changes, insulin resistance and lipid metabolism disorders are all involved in the development and progression of obesity-induced nephropathy. However, there is no targeted treatment for obesity-related kidney disease. In this review, RAS inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors and melatonin would be presented to treat obesity-induced kidney injury. Furthermore, we concluded that melatonin can protect the kidney damage caused by obesity by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress, revealing its therapeutic potential.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 82
Ihsanul Hafiz ◽  
Didi Nurhadi Illian ◽  
Okpri Meila ◽  
Ahmad Rusdan Handoyo Utomo ◽  
Arida Susilowati ◽  

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, since December 2019, is a major health problem and concern worldwide. The pandemic has impacted various fields, from the social to the development of health science and technology. The virus has been mutating and thus producing several new variants, rushing research in the field of molecular biology to develop rapidly to overcome the problems that occur. Vaccine clinical studies are developing promptly with the aim of obtaining vaccines that are effective in suppressing the spread of the virus; however, the development of viral mutations raises concerns about the decreasing effectiveness of the resulting vaccine, which also results in the need for more in-depth studies. There have been 330 vaccines developed, including 136 clinical developments and 194 pre-clinical developments. The SARS-CoV-2 variant continues to evolve today, and it poses a challenge in testing the effectiveness of existing vaccines. This is a narrative review describing the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, development of vaccine platforms, identification of concerning mutations and virus variants in various countries of the world, and real-world monitoring of post-vaccination effectiveness and surveillance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 16-21
Sudatta Waghmare ◽  
ashish Aswar ◽  
Hiranya Deka ◽  
Aman Singh ◽  
Arjav Nanavati ◽  

Abstract Background: Head injury is considered as a major health problem in developed and developing nations. Analysis of etiology, patterns, and outcome of head injury in trauma patient is essential for understanding and planning for better management. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study carried out among patients who presented with head injury at the tertiary care hospital, Mumbai from July 2015 to July 2017. Demographic details recorded were age, sex, blood pressure on arrival, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, the interval between injury and admission, associated injury, co-morbidities, hospital stay, and outcome. Results: The age group at which maximum patients of head injury were admitted was 18-29 years (31%) followed by 40-49 years (21%). Eighty one percent patients were males and 19% patients were females, the male to female ratio being 4:1. Road traffic accidents (36% cases) were the commonest cause leading to acute head injury followed by accidental fall (21% cases). 47% patients presented with mild head injury according to GCS. Conclusion: Head injuries mainly caused by vehicular accidents and affect mainly the young men. Road traffic accidents were the commonest mode of head injury, but railway accident had the worst outcome in our study. Factors associated with outcome were Pre-hospital delay, GCS on arrival, Blood pressure on arrival, Associated injury, Need for ventilator support, CT scan findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-11
Ravi Shrivastava ◽  
Rémi Shrivastava ◽  
Nathalie Maneby ◽  
Gilles Giroir ◽  
Marjorie Georges ◽  

Background: Pollution induced allergic rhinitis and respiratory symptoms is becoming a major health problem in the world for which still there is no safe and preventive treatment. Objectives: Conceive and evaluate the allergen preventive properties and clinical efficacy of an osmotic, polymeric, stable filmogen spray, called PCNS. Materials and Methods: Amb A 1 (ragweed), Der P 1 and 2 (dust mite), Bet v 1 (birch), Alt a 1 (Alternaria, fungus), and Fel d 1 (cat dander) allergens were exposed at a concentration of 5µg/ml (20 µl per tube) on the polymeric test product film (120 and 240µl layer) and the allergens crossing the barrier were quantified in the agar gel beneath the film. 0.40% HPMC and PBS solutions, tested identically, served as controls. Clinical efficacy of PCNS nasal spray was evaluated in patients suffering from allergic rhinitis and/or respiratory symptoms (29 in test product v/s 15 in saline controls) for 22 days. Nasal, ocular, respiratory symptoms and Rhino conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) were measured. Statistical analyses: The normality of the populations was determined by the Shapiro-Wilk test, then statistical analysis was performed by two-tailed Student’s test for comparisons between two groups and the two-way ANOVA followed by the post hoc Bonferroni’s test for comparisons of multiple groups. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The analyses were performed with the software GraphPad Prism (version 8.4.2, La Jolla, USA). NS indicates not significant. Results: PCNS polymeric spray blocked the diffusion of all the allergens while 0.40% HPMC was able to prevent diffusion of only Alt a 1 and Fel d 1 allergens. Mean reflective total nasal symptom scores (rTNSS), reflective total ocular symptom score (rTOSS), and respiratory symptoms including effect on wheezing, cough, dyspnea, and chest tightness were moderately improved in the control saline group, but the improvements were nearly twice better in the PCNS group. RQLQ was improved by 23% in saline spray v/s 46% PCNS group. 4/15 patients in saline group v/s 1/29 in PCNS group required rescue medication during the study. PCNS was highly effective in reducing allergen and pollution induced respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: a polymeric, osmotic, and stable nasal barrier against pollutants and allergens represents an innovative approach against pollution induced respiratory symptoms.

Cardiology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Konstantinos Dean Boudoulas ◽  
Filippos Triposkiadis ◽  
Richard Gumina ◽  
Daniel Addison ◽  
Cezar Iliescu ◽  

Background: With the aging population, the frequency of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and other morbid conditions are increasing dramatically. In addition, one disease may affect the other leading to a vicious cycle. Summary: With aging, the function of organs and systems of the human body decline including the autoimmune system resulting in a diminished response to various pathogens and a chronic inflammatory process; these changes, in addition to other risk factors, contributes to the development of multiple morbid conditions including CVD and cancer. Multimorbidity in the elderly has become the rule rather than the exception today. Further, this association between CVD and cancer, at least partially, is explained by both diseases sharing common risk factors and from accelerated vascular aging due to cancer and its associated therapies. Multiple studies have shown that the incidence of cancer is much higher in patients with CVD compared to the general population. These associations among CVD, cancer and their connection to systems of the human body provide an opportunity for novel therapies. Development of new drugs should be addressed to focus on multiple systems and not just only to one disease. Further, collecting information from registries and processing large amounts of data using artificial intelligence may assist the clinician when treating an individual patient in the future. Key messages: As the aging population increases, CVD, cancer and multimorbidity will continue to constitute a major health problem in the years to come. The physician who is taking care of such a patient, in addition to knowledge, requires clinical wisdom, clinical experience and common sense in order to apply the continuous evolving knowledge to the individual patient.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Mohammad Naghizadeh ◽  
Laura Klaver ◽  
Anna A. Schönherz ◽  
Sundas Rani ◽  
Tina Sørensen Dalgaard ◽  

Unfavorable alterations of the commensal gut microbiota and dysbacteriosis is a major health problem in the poultry industry. Understanding how dietary intervention alters the microbial ecology of broiler chickens is important for prevention strategies. A trial was conducted with 672 Ross 308 day-old male broilers fed a basic diet (no additives, control) or the basic diet supplemented with 500 mg/kg encapsulated butyrate or 68 mg/kg salinomycin. Enteric challenge was induced by inclusion of 50 g/kg rye in a grower diet and oral gavage of a 10 times overdose of a vaccine against coccidiosis. Compared to control and butyrate-supplemented birds, salinomycin supplementation alleviated growth depression. Compared to butyrate and non-supplemented control, salinomycin increased potentially beneficial Ruminococcaceae and reduced potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and counts of Lactobacillus salivarius and Clostridium perfringens. Further, salinomycin supplementation was accompanied by a pH decrease and succinic acid increase in ceca, while coated butyrate (0.5 g/kg) showed no or limited effects. Salinomycin alleviated growth depression and maintained intestinal homeostasis in the challenged broilers, while butyrate in the tested concentration showed limited effects. Thus, further investigations are required to identify optimal dietary inclusion rates for butyrate used as alternative to ionophore coccidiostats in broiler production.

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