chest x ray
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Author(s):  
Farah Flayeh Alkhalid ◽  
Abdulhakeem Qusay Albayati ◽  
Ahmed Ali Alhammad

The main important factor that plays vital role in success the deep learning is the deep training by many and many images, if neural networks are getting bigger and bigger but the training datasets are not, then it sounds like going to hit an accuracy wall. Briefly, this paper investigates the current state of the art of approaches used for a data augmentation for expansion the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) chest X-ray images using different data augmentation methods (transformation and enhancement) the dataset expansion helps to rise numbers of images from 138 to 5520, the increasing rate is 3,900%, this proposed model can be used to expand any type of image dataset, in addition, the dataset have used with convolutional neural network (CNN) model to make classification if detected infection with COVID-19 in X-ray, the results have gotten high training accuracy=99%


Diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia using patients’ chest X-Ray images is new but yet important task in the field of medicine. Researchers from different parts of the globe have developed many deep learning models to classify COVID-19. The performance of feature extraction and classifier plays a vital role in the recognizing the different patterns in the image. The pivotal process is the extraction of optimum features from the chest X-Ray images. The main goal of this study is to design an efficient hybrid algorithm that integrates the robustness of MobileNet (using transfer learning approach) to extract features and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify COVID-19. Experiments were conducted to test the proposed algorithm and it was found to have a high classification accuracy of 95%.


Author(s):  
Rajeev Kumar Gupta ◽  
Nilesh Kunhare ◽  
Rajesh Kumar Pateriya ◽  
Nikhlesh Pathik

The novel Covid-19 is one of the leading cause of death worldwide in the year 2020 and declared as a pandemic by world health organization (WHO). This virus affecting all countries across the world and 5 lakh people die as of June 2020 due to Covid-19. Due to the highly contagious nature, early detection of this virus plays a vital role to break Covid chain. Recent studies done by China says that chest CT and X-Ray image may be used as a preliminary test for Covid detection. Deep learning-based CNN model can use to detect Coronavirus automatically from the chest X-rays images. This paper proposed a transfer learning-based approach to detect Covid disease. Due to the less number of Covid chest images, we are using a pre-trained model to classify X-ray images into Covid and Normal class. This paper presents the comparative study of a various pre-trained model like VGGNet-19, ResNet50 and Inception_ResNet_V2. Experiment results show that Inception_ResNet_V2 gives the better result as compare to VGGNet and ResNet model with training and test accuracy of 99.26 and 94, respectively.


Author(s):  
Malathy Jawahar ◽  
L. Jani Anbarasi ◽  
Prassanna Jayachandran ◽  
Manikandan Ramachandran ◽  
Fadi Al-Turjman

Diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia using patients’ chest X-Ray images is new but yet important task in the field of medicine. Researchers from different parts of the globe have developed many deep learning models to classify COVID-19. The performance of feature extraction and classifier plays a vital role in the recognizing the different patterns in the image. The pivotal process is the extraction of optimum features from the chest X-Ray images. The main goal of this study is to design an efficient hybrid algorithm that integrates the robustness of MobileNet (using transfer learning approach) to extract features and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify COVID-19. Experiments were conducted to test the proposed algorithm and it was found to have a high classification accuracy of 95%.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Pulmonary disease is widespread worldwide. There is persistent blockage of the lungs, pneumonia, asthma, TB, etc. It is essential to diagnose the lungs promptly. For this reason, machine learning models were developed. For lung disease prediction, many deep learning technologies, including the CNN, and the capsule network, are used. The fundamental CNN has low rotating, inclined, or other irregular image orientation efficiency. Therefore by integrating the space transformer network (STN) with CNN, we propose a new hybrid deep learning architecture named STNCNN. The new model is implemented on the dataset from the Kaggle repository for an NIH chest X-ray image. STNCNN has an accuracy of 69% in respect of the entire dataset, while the accuracy values of vanilla grey, vanilla RGB, hybrid CNN are 67.8%, 69.5%, and 63.8%, respectively. When the sample data set is applied, STNCNN takes much less time to train at the cost of a slightly less reliable validation. Therefore both specialists and physicians are simplified by the proposed STNCNN System for the diagnosis of lung disease.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Luís Vinícius de Moura ◽  
Christian Mattjie ◽  
Caroline Machado Dartora ◽  
Rodrigo C. Barros ◽  
Ana Maria Marques da Silva

Both reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and chest X-rays are used for the diagnosis of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, COVID-19 pneumonia does not have a defined set of radiological findings. Our work aims to investigate radiomic features and classification models to differentiate chest X-ray images of COVID-19-based pneumonia and other types of lung patterns. The goal is to provide grounds for understanding the distinctive COVID-19 radiographic texture features using supervised ensemble machine learning methods based on trees through the interpretable Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP) approach. We use 2,611 COVID-19 chest X-ray images and 2,611 non-COVID-19 chest X-rays. After segmenting the lung in three zones and laterally, a histogram normalization is applied, and radiomic features are extracted. SHAP recursive feature elimination with cross-validation is used to select features. Hyperparameter optimization of XGBoost and Random Forest ensemble tree models is applied using random search. The best classification model was XGBoost, with an accuracy of 0.82 and a sensitivity of 0.82. The explainable model showed the importance of the middle left and superior right lung zones in classifying COVID-19 pneumonia from other lung patterns.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 669
Author(s):  
Irfan Ullah Khan ◽  
Nida Aslam ◽  
Talha Anwar ◽  
Hind S. Alsaif ◽  
Sara Mhd. Bachar Chrouf ◽  
...  

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is disrupting the entire world; its rapid global spread threatens to affect millions of people. Accurate and timely diagnosis of COVID-19 is essential to control the spread and alleviate risk. Due to the promising results achieved by integrating machine learning (ML), particularly deep learning (DL), in automating the multiple disease diagnosis process. In the current study, a model based on deep learning was proposed for the automated diagnosis of COVID-19 using chest X-ray images (CXR) and clinical data of the patient. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of integrating clinical patient data with the CXR for automated COVID-19 diagnosis. The proposed model used data collected from King Fahad University Hospital, Dammam, KSA, which consists of 270 patient records. The experiments were carried out first with clinical data, second with the CXR, and finally with clinical data and CXR. The fusion technique was used to combine the clinical features and features extracted from images. The study found that integrating clinical data with the CXR improves diagnostic accuracy. Using the clinical data and the CXR, the model achieved an accuracy of 0.970, a recall of 0.986, a precision of 0.978, and an F-score of 0.982. Further validation was performed by comparing the performance of the proposed system with the diagnosis of an expert. Additionally, the results have shown that the proposed system can be used as a tool that can help the doctors in COVID-19 diagnosis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 196-201
Author(s):  
Sonisha Gupta ◽  
Ankur Porwal ◽  
Atul Kumar Gupta

Tuberculosis (TB) is, one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent.This Prospective study was conducted at Santosh medical college Ghaziabad from 1 April 2018 to 30 September 2019. All diagnosed PTB patients above 12yrs were taken. Patients with EPTB, HIV positive, MDR TB, XDR TB were excluded from the study. At the end of study treatment outcome was evaluated.Total of 208 patients diagnosed as tuberculosis were enrolled in the study. 6 patients died during course of study, 10 were treatment failure, 4 were lost to follow-up, 3 transferred out & 1 shifted to private treatment. 184 patients completed treatment successfully. Out of 184, only 152 patients were available for interview at 6 months follow up after completion of treatment. 19 could not be traced, 11 patients refused and 2 died. Out of 152, 110 were asymptomatic, 1 relapsed & rest 41 patients were symptomatic. All symptomatic patients were subjected to Chest X-Ray. Fibrosis was seen on CXR of 30 patients, bronchiectasis was seen in 3 patients, 1 patient had destroyed lung, nothing abnormal detected in 7 patients.Even after successful treatment under RNTCP, these patients need to be followed up as many of them relapse or suffer from sequelae of tuberculosis.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261142
Author(s):  
Katie Bechman ◽  
Mark Yates ◽  
Kirsty Mann ◽  
Deepak Nagra ◽  
Laura-Jane Smith ◽  
...  

Background The Covid-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom has seen two waves; the first starting in March 2020 and the second in late October 2020. It is not known whether outcomes for those admitted with severe Covid were different in the first and second waves. Methods The study population comprised all patients admitted to a 1,500-bed London Hospital Trust between March 2020 and March 2021, who tested positive for Covid-19 by PCR within 3-days of admissions. Primary outcome was death within 28-days of admission. Socio-demographics (age, sex, ethnicity), hypertension, diabetes, obesity, baseline physiological observations, CRP, neutrophil, chest x-ray abnormality, remdesivir and dexamethasone were incorporated as co-variates. Proportional subhazards models compared mortality risk between wave 1 and wave 2. Cox-proportional hazard model with propensity score adjustment were used to compare mortality in patients prescribed remdesivir and dexamethasone. Results There were 3,949 COVID-19 admissions, 3,195 hospital discharges and 733 deaths. There were notable differences in age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and admission disease severity between wave 1 and wave 2. Twenty-eight-day mortality was higher during wave 1 (26.1% versus 13.1%). Mortality risk adjusted for co-variates was significantly lower in wave 2 compared to wave 1 [adjSHR 0.49 (0.37, 0.65) p<0.001]. Analysis of treatment impact did not show statistically different effects of remdesivir [HR 0.84 (95%CI 0.65, 1.08), p = 0.17] or dexamethasone [HR 0.97 (95%CI 0.70, 1.35) p = 0.87]. Conclusion There has been substantial improvements in COVID-19 mortality in the second wave, even accounting for demographics, comorbidity, and disease severity. Neither dexamethasone nor remdesivir appeared to be key explanatory factors, although there may be unmeasured confounding present.


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