spatial memory
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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-39
Katherine Fennedy ◽  
Angad Srivastava ◽  
Sylvain Malacria ◽  
Simon T. Perrault

We advocate for the usage of hotkeys on touch-based devices by capitalising on soft keyboards through four studies. First, we evaluated visual designs and recommended icons with command names for novices while letters with command names for experts. Second, we investigated the discoverability by asking crowdworkers to use our prototype, with some tasks only doable upon successfully discovering the technique. Discovery rates were high regardless of conditions that vary the familiarity and saliency of modifier keys. However, familiarity with desktop hotkeys boosted discoverability. Our third study focused on how prior knowledge of hotkeys could be leveraged and resulted in a 5% selection time improvement and identified the role of spatial memory in retention. Finally, we compared our soft keyboard layout with a grid layout similar to FastTap. The latter offered a 12–16% gain on selection speed, but at a high cost in terms of screen estate and low spatial stability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 244 ◽  
pp. 113669
Adnan M. Massadeh ◽  
Karem H. Alzoubi ◽  
Amal M. Milhem ◽  
Abeer M. Rababa'h ◽  
Omar F. Khabour

2022 ◽  
Vol 419 ◽  
pp. 113705
Ericks Sousa Soares ◽  
Felipe Vanz ◽  
Vagner Fagnani Linartevichi ◽  
Helena Cimarosti ◽  
Thereza Christina Monteiro de Lima

Seyyed Mohammad Amin Alemohammad ◽  
Seyed Mohammad Reza Noori ◽  
Ehsan Samarbafzadeh ◽  
Seyyed Mohammad Ali Noori

2022 ◽  
Md. Mamun Al-Amin ◽  
Robert K P Sullivan ◽  
Suzanne Alexander ◽  
David A Carter ◽  
Dana Bradford ◽  

Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in adults and is associated with cognitive impairment. However, the mechanism by which adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency affects cognitive function remains unclear. We examined spatial memory impairment in AVD-deficient BALB/c mice and its underlying mechanism by measuring spine density, long term potentiation (LTP), nitric oxide (NO), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the hippocampus. Adult male BALB/c mice were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 20 weeks. Spatial memory performance was measured using an active place avoidance (APA) task, where AVD-deficient mice had reduced latency entering the shock zone compared to controls. We characterised hippocampal spine morphology in the CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) and made electrophysiological recordings in the hippocampus of behaviourally naive mice to measure LTP. We next measured NO, as well as glutathione, lipid peroxidation and oxidation of protein products and quantified hippocampal immunoreactivity for nNOS and eNOS. Spine morphology analysis revealed a significant reduction in the number of mushroom spines in the CA1 dendrites but not in the DG. There was no effect of diet on LTP. However, hippocampal NO levels were depleted whereas other oxidation markers were unaltered by AVD deficiency. We also showed a reduced nNOS, but not eNOS, immunoreactivity. Finally, vitamin D supplementation for 10 weeks to AVD-deficient mice restored nNOS immunoreactivity to that seen in in control mice. Our results suggest that lower levels of NO, reduced nNOS immunostaining contribute to hippocampal-dependent spatial learning deficits in AVD-deficient mice.

2022 ◽  
Fiona Zisch ◽  
Coco Newton ◽  
Antoine Coutrot ◽  
Maria Murcia-Lopez ◽  
Anisa Motala ◽  

Boundaries define regions of space and are integral to episodic memories. The impact of boundaries on spatial memory and neural representations of space has been extensively studied in freely-moving rodents. But less is known in humans and many prior studies have employed desktop virtual reality (VR) which lacks the body-based self-motion cues of the physical world, diminishing the potentially strong input from path integration to spatial memory. We replicated a desktop-VR study testing the impact of boundaries on spatial memory (Hartley et al., 2004) in a physical room (2.4m x 2.4m, 2m tall) by having participants (N = 27) learn the location of a circular stool and then after a short delay replace it where they thought they had found it. During the delay, the wall boundaries were either expanded or contracted. We compared performance to groups of participants undergoing the same procedure in a laser-scanned replica in both desktop VR (N = 44) and freely-walking head mounted display (HMD) VR (N = 39) environments. Performance was measured as goodness of fit between the spatial distributions of group responses and seven modelled distributions that prioritised different metrics based on boundary geometry or walking paths to estimate the stool location. The best fitting model was a weighted linear combination of all the geometric spatial models, but an individual model derived from place cell firing in Hartley et al. 2004 also fit well. High levels of disorientation in all three environments prevented detailed analysis on the contribution of path integration. We found identical model fits across the three environments, though desktop VR and HMD-VR appeared more consistent in spatial distributions of group responses than the physical environment and displayed known variations in virtual depth perception. Thus, while human spatial representation appears differentially influenced by environmental boundaries, the influence is similar across virtual and physical environments. Despite differences in body-based cue availability, desktop and HMD-VR allow a good and interchangeable approximation for examining human spatial memory in small-scale physical environments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Violeta-Maria Caragea ◽  
Denise Manahan-Vaughan

Dopamine is a key factor in the enablement of cognition and hippocampal information processing. Its action in the hippocampus is mediated by D1/D5 and D2-like (D2, D3, D4) receptors. While D1/D5-receptors are well recognized as strong modulators of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and information storage, much less is known about the role of D2-like receptors (D2R) in these processes. Here, we explored to what extent D2R contribute to synaptic plasticity and cumulative spatial memory derived from semantic and episodic-like information storage. In freely behaving adult rats, we also assessed to what extent short and long-term forms of synaptic plasticity are influenced by pharmacological activation or blockade of D2R. Antagonism of D2R by means of intracerebral treatment with remoxipride, completely prevented the expression of both short-term (<1 h) and long-term potentiation (>4 h), as well as the expression of short-term depression (STD, <1 h) in the hippocampal CA1 region. Scrutiny of involvement of D2R in spatial learning revealed that D2R-antagonism prevented retention of a semantic spatial memory task, and also significantly impaired retention of recent spatiotemporal aspects of an episodic-like memory task. Taken together, these findings indicate that D2R are required for bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, they are critically involved in enabling cumulative and episodic-like forms of spatial learning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Ramu Anandakrishnan ◽  
Hope Tobey ◽  
Steven Nguyen ◽  
Osscar Sandoval ◽  
Bradley G. Klein ◽  

Abstract Context Age-dependent dementia is a devastating disorder afflicting a growing older population. Although pharmacological agents improve symptoms of dementia, age-related comorbidities combined with adverse effects often outweigh their clinical benefits. Therefore, nonpharmacological therapies are being investigated as an alternative. In a previous pilot study, aged rats demonstrated improved spatial memory after osteopathic cranial manipulative medicine (OCMM) treatment. Objectives In this continuation of the pilot study, we examine the effect of OCMM on gene expression to elicit possible explanations for the improvement in spatial memory. Methods OCMM was performed on six of 12 elderly rats every day for 7 days. Rats were then euthanized to obtain the brain tissue, from which RNA samples were extracted. RNA from three treated and three controls were of sufficient quality for sequencing. These samples were sequenced utilizing next-generation sequencing from Illumina NextSeq. The Cufflinks software suite was utilized to assemble transcriptomes and quantify the RNA expression level for each sample. Results Transcriptome analysis revealed that OCMM significantly affected the expression of 36 genes in the neuronal pathway (false discovery rate [FDR] <0.004). The top five neuronal genes with the largest-fold change were part of the cholinergic neurotransmission mechanism, which is known to affect cognitive function. In addition, 39.9% of 426 significant differentially expressed (SDE) genes (FDR<0.004) have been previously implicated in neurological disorders. Overall, changes in SDE genes combined with their role in central nervous system signaling pathways suggest a connection to previously reported OCMM-induced behavioral and biochemical changes in aged rats. Conclusions Results from this pilot study provide sufficient evidence to support a more extensive study with a larger sample size. Further investigation in this direction will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of OCMM and its potential in clinical applications. With clinical validation, OCMM could represent a much-needed low-risk adjunct treatment for age-related dementia including Alzheimer’s disease.

Yan Yu ◽  
Jing‐Jing Li ◽  
Xiao‐Qian He ◽  
Zi‐Ying Lai ◽  
Rui Hao ◽  

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