animal studies
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Thomas Balfe

The shared embodiment of humans and animals, and the notion of the ‘creaturely’ human influentially discussed by Anat Pick, have recently emerged as vital concerns within Animal Studies. Aligning its critical stance with these perspectives, this article analyses the small painting in the Rijksmuseum, traditionally attributed to Jan de Baen, which depicts the 1672 murder of the Dutch politicians Johan and Cornelis de Witt. Pamphlets, broadsheets and other contemporary responses to the murder frequently compare the bodies of the De Witts – which were eviscerated, hung upside-down, shorn of body parts and allegedly partially eaten – to animal carcasses. Drawing on these contextual sources, the essay explores how the painting works with and against period constructions of the killing in terms of inter-species violence. It uncovers tentative admissions of human creatureliness in the painting’s representation of the murdered body as a temporal, material and fragile entity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 74 ◽  
pp. 25-31
Steven P Wolf ◽  
Frank T Wen ◽  
Hans Schreiber

Shaistha Saba

Abstract: Papaya (Carica papaya) is a tropical fruit having commercial importance because of its high nutritive and medicinal value. Papaya seeds are traditionally used by human beings from centuries to heal many illnesses. Papaya seeds contains antioxidants and antimicrobial virtues which gives protection against harmful free radicals and reduce rate of cancer and heart disease. Papaya seeds contain a variety of essential macro and micronutrients. The papaya seeds contain large amounts of nutrients, including fibre which is effective for combating constipation and other digestive problems. Seeds can be used to treat health complications such as urinary tract infection, candidiasis and sepsis. Papaya seeds are sometimes used in salads and can even be used as a substitute for black pepper. Products developed from papaya seeds are considered to be nutritionally rich with diverse sources of all nutrients. Papaya seeds have the potential to produce oil with nutritional and functional properties highly similar to olive oil. The papaya seed, and products may be useful for bio-fuel, medicinal and industrial purposes. Therefore, Papaya seeds are usually thrown away but their proper utilization can lead to the development of novel drug in medicine and considered as safe for consumption. ‘In this review subtopics covered are nutritional and Phytochemicals composition, antioxidant effect, antibacterial Activity, anthelminthic effect, Phytochemicals with Anticancer activity, Lycopene and isothiocyanate applications in papaya, papaya seed products and in vivo animal studies.’

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Stefano Farioli-Vecchioli ◽  
Valentina Ricci ◽  
Silvia Middei

The mammalian hippocampal dentate gyrus is a niche for adult neurogenesis from neural stem cells. Newborn neurons integrate into existing neuronal networks, where they play a key role in hippocampal functions, including learning and memory. In the ageing brain, neurogenic capability progressively declines while in parallel increases the risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the main neurodegenerative disorder associated with memory loss. Numerous studies have investigated whether impaired adult neurogenesis contributes to memory decline in AD. Here, we review the literature on adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and AD by focusing on both human and mouse model studies. First, we describe key steps of AHN, report recent evidence of this phenomenon in humans, and describe the specific contribution of newborn neurons to memory, as evinced by animal studies. Next, we review articles investigating AHN in AD patients and critically examine the discrepancies among different studies over the last two decades. Also, we summarize researches investigating AHN in AD mouse models, and from these studies, we extrapolate the contribution of molecular factors linking AD-related changes to impaired neurogenesis. Lastly, we examine animal studies that link impaired neurogenesis to specific memory dysfunctions in AD and review treatments that have the potential to rescue memory capacities in AD by stimulating AHN.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 364
Nathalie Irvine ◽  
Gillian England-Mason ◽  
Catherine J. Field ◽  
Deborah Dewey ◽  
Fariba Aghajafari

Women’s nutritional status during pregnancy can have long-term effects on children’s brains and cognitive development. Folate and choline are methyl-donor nutrients and are important for closure of the neural tube during fetal development. They have also been associated with brain and cognitive development in children. Animal studies have observed that prenatal folate and choline supplementation is associated with better cognitive outcomes in offspring and that these nutrients may have interactive effects on brain development. Although some human studies have reported associations between maternal folate and choline levels and child cognitive outcomes, results are not consistent, and no human studies have investigated the potential interactive effects of folate and choline. This lack of consistency could be due to differences in the methods used to assess folate and choline levels, the gestational trimester at which they were measured, and lack of consideration of potential confounding variables. This narrative review discusses and critically reviews current research examining the associations between maternal levels of folate and choline during pregnancy and brain and cognitive development in children. Directions for future research that will increase our understanding of the effects of these nutrients on children’s neurodevelopment are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Daniel Freilich ◽  
Jennifer Victory ◽  
Anne Gadomski

Background In the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many hospitalized patients received empiric hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (HC/CQ). Although some retrospective-observational trials suggested potential benefit, all subsequent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) failed to show benefit and use generally ceased. Herein, we summarize key studies that clinicians advising patients on HC/CQ efficacy:safety calculus in hospitalized COVID-19 patients would want to know about in a practical one-stop-shopping source. Methods Pubmed and Google were searched on November 4, 2021. Search words included: COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, in vitro, animal studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses. Studies were assessed for import and included if considered impactful for benefit:risk assessment. Results These searches led to inclusion of 12 in vitro and animal reports; 12 retrospective-observational trials, 19 interventional clinical trials (17 RCTs, 1 single-arm, 1 controlled but unblinded), and 51 meta-analyses in hospitalized patients. Inconsistent efficacy was seen in vitro and in animal studies for coronaviruses and nil in SARS-CoV-2 animal models specifically. Most retrospective-observational studies in hospitalized COVID-19 patients found no efficacy; QT prolongation and increased adverse events and mortality were reported in some. All RCTs and almost all meta-analyses provided robust data showing no benefit in overall populations and subgroups, yet concerning safety issues in many. Conclusions HC/CQ have inconsistent anti-coronavirus efficacy in vitro and in animal models, and no convincing efficacy yet substantial safety issues in the overwhelming majority of retrospective-observational trials, RCTs, and meta-analyses in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. HC/CQ should not be prescribed for hospitalized COVID-19 patients outside of clinical trials.

Seyyed Mohammad Amin Alemohammad ◽  
Seyed Mohammad Reza Noori ◽  
Ehsan Samarbafzadeh ◽  
Seyyed Mohammad Ali Noori

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Fatemeh Yadavar Nikravesh ◽  
Samira Shirkhani ◽  
Elham Bayat ◽  
Yeganeh Talebkhan ◽  
Esmat Mirabzadeh ◽  

AbstractGranulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) can decrease mortality of patients undergo chemotherapy through increasing neutrophil counts. Many strategies have been developed to improve its blood circulating time. Albumin binding domain (ABD) was genetically fused to N-terminal end of GCSF encoding sequence and expressed as cytoplasmic inclusion bodies within Escherichia coli. Biological activity of ABD-GCSF protein was assessed by proliferation assay on NFS-60 cells. Physicochemical properties were analyzed through size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties were also investigated in a neutropenic rat model. CD and IFS spectra revealed that ABD fusion to GCSF did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the molecule. DLS and SEC results indicated the absence of aggregation formation. EC50 value of the ABD-GCSF in proliferation of NFS-60 cells was 75.76 pg/ml after 72 h in comparison with control GCSF molecules (Filgrastim: 73.1 pg/ml and PEG-Filgrastim: 44.6 pg/ml). Animal studies of ABD-GCSF represented improved serum half-life (9.3 ± 0.7 h) and consequently reduced renal clearance (16.1 ± 1.4 ml/ in comparison with Filgrastim (1.7 ± 0.1 h). Enhanced neutrophils count following administration of ABD-GCSF was comparable with Filgrastim and weaker than PEG-Filgrastim treated rats. In vitro and in vivo results suggested the ABD fusion as a potential approach for improving GCSF properties.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Chen Shen ◽  
Xiang-Chang Yin ◽  
Bo-Yang Jiao ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Peng Jia ◽  

Abstract Objective A systematic review of animal and human studies was conducted on genetically modified (GM) food consumption to assess its safety in terms of adverse effects/events to inform public concerns and future research. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from January 1st 1983 till July 11th 2020 for in vivo, animal and human studies on the incidence of adverse effects/events of GM products consumption. Two authors independently identified eligible studies, assessed the study quality, and extracted data on the name of the periodical, author and affiliation, literature type, the theme of the study, publication year, funding, sample size, target population characteristics, type of the intervention/exposure, outcomes and outcome measures, and details of adverse effects/events. We used the Chi-square test to compare the adverse event reporting rates in articles funded by industry funding, government funding or unfunded articles. Results One crossover trial in humans and 203 animal studies from 179 articles met the inclusion criteria. The study quality was all assessed as being unclear or having a high risk of bias. Minor illnesses were reported in the human trial. Among the 204 studies, 59.46% of adverse events (22 of 37) were serious adverse events from 16 animal studies (7.84%). No significant differences were found in the adverse event reporting rates either between industry and government funding (χ2 = 2.286, P = 0.131), industry and non-industry funding (χ2 = 1.761, P = 0.185) or funded and non-funded articles (χ2 = 0.491, P = 0.483). We finally identified 21 GM food-related adverse events involving 7 GM events (NK603 × MON810 maize, GTS 40-3-2 soybean, NK603 maize, MON863 maize, MON810 maize, MON863 × MON810 × NK603 maize and GM Shanyou 63 rice), which had all been on regulatory approval in some countries/regions. Conclusion Serious adverse events of GM consumption include mortality, tumour or cancer, significant low fertility, decreased learning and reaction abilities, and some organ abnormalities. Further clinical trials and long-term cohort studies in human populations, especially on GM food-related adverse events and the corresponding GM events, are still warranted. It suggests the necessity of labelling GM food so that consumers can make their own choice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 161-174
A. I. Kriman

The article presents a brief retrospective of the conceptions of philosophical postmodernism in their connection with posthumanism. Posthumanism is a philosophical movement that has been actively developed in the last decade, with its roots in the 60s and 70s of continental philosophy. The discourse of posthumanism implies work and development of conceptions and notions used by M. Foucault, J. Derrida, J. Deleuze and F. Guattari, R. Barthes and others. Connecting with such philosophical trends as disability studies, animal studies, postcolonial philosophy, actor-network theory, intersectional feminism, posthumanism expands, complements and reincarnates many provisions of postmodern philosophy. This article outlines the main concepts used in posthumanist discourse.

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