hippocampal ca1
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Violeta-Maria Caragea ◽  
Denise Manahan-Vaughan

Dopamine is a key factor in the enablement of cognition and hippocampal information processing. Its action in the hippocampus is mediated by D1/D5 and D2-like (D2, D3, D4) receptors. While D1/D5-receptors are well recognized as strong modulators of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and information storage, much less is known about the role of D2-like receptors (D2R) in these processes. Here, we explored to what extent D2R contribute to synaptic plasticity and cumulative spatial memory derived from semantic and episodic-like information storage. In freely behaving adult rats, we also assessed to what extent short and long-term forms of synaptic plasticity are influenced by pharmacological activation or blockade of D2R. Antagonism of D2R by means of intracerebral treatment with remoxipride, completely prevented the expression of both short-term (<1 h) and long-term potentiation (>4 h), as well as the expression of short-term depression (STD, <1 h) in the hippocampal CA1 region. Scrutiny of involvement of D2R in spatial learning revealed that D2R-antagonism prevented retention of a semantic spatial memory task, and also significantly impaired retention of recent spatiotemporal aspects of an episodic-like memory task. Taken together, these findings indicate that D2R are required for bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, they are critically involved in enabling cumulative and episodic-like forms of spatial learning.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261644
Amit Benbenishty ◽  
Jacob Schneiderman

Background Brain reperfusion following an ischemic event is essential for tissue viability, however, it also involves processes that promote neuronal cell death. We have recently shown that local expression of the hormone leptin in cardiovascular organs drives deleterious remodeling. As cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) lesions derive expression of both the leptin hormone and its receptor, we hypothesized that blocking leptin activity in the injured brain area will reduce the deleterious effects of IR injury. Methods C57BL6 male mice underwent bilateral common carotid artery and external carotid artery ligation. The right hemisphere was reperfused after 12 minutes, followed by intraarterial injection of either a low-dose leptin antagonist or saline solution via the ipsilateral ICA. The left common carotid artery remained ligated. Fifteen IR/leptin antagonist-injected and fourteen IR/saline-injected mice completed the experiment. Five days after surgery brains were collected and samples of the hippocampal CA1 region were analyzed for cell viability (H&E) and apoptosis (TUNEL and caspase3), for neuroinflammation (Iba1), and for signaling pathways of pSTAT3 and pSmad2. Results The right hemisphere hippocampal CA1 region subjected to IR and saline injection exhibited increased apoptosis and necrosis of pyramidal cells. Also, increased density of activated microglia/macrophages was evident around the CA1 region. Comparatively, leptin antagonist treatment at reperfusion reduced apoptosis and necrosis of pyramidal cells, as indicated by increased number of viable cells (p < 0.01), and reduced TUNEL (p < 0.001) and caspase3-positive cells (p<0.05). Furthermore, this treatment reduced the density of activated microglia/macrophages (p < 0.001) in the CA1 region. Signaling pathway analysis revealed that while pSTAT3 and pSmad2-positive cells were found surrounding the stratum pyramidal in saline-treated animals, pSTAT3 signal was undetected and pSmad2 was greatly reduced in this territory following leptin antagonist treatment (p < 0.01). Conclusions Inhibition of leptin activity in hemispheric IR injury preserved the viability of ipsilateral hippocampal CA1 neurons, likely by preventing apoptosis and local inflammation. These results indicate that intraarterial anti-leptin therapy may have clinical potential in reducing hemispheric brain IR injury.

Duyan Geng ◽  
Zeyu Gao ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Zhaoxu Qin ◽  
Geng Pang ◽  

Hippocampal atrophy and neuron loss are common symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hippocampal region is well known for producing oscillations at different frequency bands due to the neuronal network architecture. However, the mechanism of Ripple high frequency variation in hippocampal region with the course of AD disease has not been correctly assessed. We proposed time-frequency analysis using wavelet transform and constructing Granger causality network to analyze the characteristics of Hippocampal sharp wave-ripple (SPW-R) complexes in APP/PS1 mice at different cognitive levels. We use wavelet transform to overcome the shortcoming that the traditional Short Time Fourier Transform cannot deal with the unsteady signal frequency, and construct the Granger causality network to verify our results. By analyzing ripple frequency band energy changes and directional transfer function matrix in hippocampal CA1 region of mice with different cognitive levels, we found that the loss of ripple high frequency energy and decreased network connectivity in hippocampal CA1 region of APP/PS1 mice were correlated with the degree of memory loss. We believe that from mild dementia to severe dementia. The decreased cell activity in APP/PS1 mouse CA1 region leads to changes in Ripple high-frequency time-frequency energy and network connectivity for theoretical reasons. Our results provide support for assessing cognitive loss in APP/PS1 mice from the perspective of Ripple high frequency in hippocampus CA1 region.

Xing Jun Jiang ◽  
Yan Qing Wu ◽  
Rong Ma ◽  
Yan Min Chang ◽  
Lu Lu Li ◽  

As a primary cause of dementia and death in older people, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has become a common problem and challenge worldwide. Abnormal accumulation of tau proteins in the brain is a hallmark pathology of AD and is closely related to the clinical progression and severity of cognitive deficits. Here, we found that overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) effectively promoted the degradation of tau, thereby rescuing neuron loss, synaptic damage, and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of tauopathy with AAV-full-length human Tau (hTau) injected into the hippocampal CA1 area (hTau mice). Overexpression of PINK1 activated autophagy, and chloroquine but not MG132 reversed the PINK1-induced decrease in human Tau levels and cognitive improvement in hTau mice. Furthermore, PINK1 also ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by hTau. Taken together, our data revealed that PINK1 overexpression promoted degradation of abnormal accumulated tau via the autophagy–lysosome pathway, indicating that PINK1 may be a potential target for AD treatment.

2022 ◽  
Kambadur Gundu Ananthamurthy ◽  
Upinder S Bhalla

Hippocampal CA1 cells take part in reliable, time-locked activity sequences in tasks that involve an association between stimuli, in a manner that tiles the interval between the stimuli. Such cells have been termed time cells. Here we adopt a first-principles approach to comparing diverse analysis and detection algorithms for identifying time cells. We developed a resource for generating synthetic activity datasets using calcium signals recorded in vivo from mouse hippocampus using 2-photon imaging, for template response waveforms. We assigned known, ground truth values for properties of time cells in this synthetic dataset, including noise, timing imprecision, hit-trial ratio and calcium event width. These datasets were the input to a pipeline for testing multiple algorithms for time cell detection to determine the conditions for which they were best suited, and evaluate their effective operating ranges. We find that most algorithms are sensitive to noise. Only a few methods benefit from larger event widths. Reassuringly, most methods are insensitive to timing imprecision, and exhibit successful time cell detection even at low hit trial ratios. Importantly, all methods show good concordance in identifying cells as time cells.

Daniela Bianchi ◽  
Rosanna Migliore ◽  
Paola Vitale ◽  
Machhindra Garad ◽  
Paula A. Pousinha ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Zhao-Hui Chen ◽  
Yuan-Yuan Han ◽  
Ying-Jie Shang ◽  
Si-Yi Zhuang ◽  
Jun-Ni Huang ◽  

Cordycepin exerted significant neuroprotective effects and protected against cerebral ischemic damage. Learning and memory impairments after cerebral ischemia are common. Cordycepin has been proved to improve memory impairments induced by cerebral ischemia, but its underlying mechanism has not been revealed yet. The plasticity of synaptic structure and function is considered to be one of the neural mechanisms of learning and memory. Therefore, we investigated how cordycepin benefits dendritic morphology and synaptic transmission after cerebral ischemia and traced the related molecular mechanisms. The effects of cordycepin on the protection against ischemia were studied by using global cerebral ischemia (GCI) and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) models. Behavioral long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic transmission were observed with electrophysiological recordings. The dendritic morphology and histological assessment were assessed by Golgi staining and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, respectively. Adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) and adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) were evaluated with western blotting. The results showed that cordycepin reduced the GCI-induced dendritic morphology scathing and behavioral LTP impairment in the hippocampal CA1 area, improved the learning and memory abilities, and up-regulated the level of A1R but not A2AR. In the in vitro experiments, cordycepin pre-perfusion could alleviate the hippocampal slices injury and synaptic transmission cripple induced by OGD, accompanied by increased adenosine content. In addition, the protective effect of cordycepin on OGD-induced synaptic transmission damage was eliminated by using an A1R antagonist instead of A2AR. These findings revealed that cordycepin alleviated synaptic dysfunction and dendritic injury in ischemic models by modulating A1R, which provides new insights into the pharmacological mechanisms of cordycepin for ameliorating cognitive impairment induced by cerebral ischemia.

2021 ◽  
Juan Yang ◽  
Liyan Qiu ◽  
Xuanmao Chen

It is well-recognized that primary cilia regulate embryonic neurodevelopment, but little is known about their roles in postnatal neurodevelopment. The striatum pyramidal (SP) of hippocampal CA1 consists of superficial and deep sublayers, however, it is not well understood how early- and late-born pyramidal neurons position to two sublayers postnatally. Here we show that neuronal primary cilia emerge after CA1 pyramidal cells have reached SP, but before final neuronal positioning. The axonemes of primary cilia of early-born neurons point to the stratum oriens (SO), whereas late-born neuronal cilia orient toward the stratum radiatum (SR), reflecting an inside-out lamination pattern. Neuronal primary cilia in SP undergo marked changes in morphology and orientation from postnatal day 5 (P5) to P14, concurrent with pyramidal cell positioning to the deep and superficial sublayers and with neuronal maturation. Transgenic overexpression of Arl13B, a protein regulating ciliogenesis, not only elongates primary cilia and promotes earlier cilia protrusion, but also affects centriole positioning and cilia orientation in SP. The centrioles of late-born neurons migrate excessively to cluster at SP bottom before primary cilia protrusion and a reverse movement back to the main SP. Similarly, this pull-back movement of centriole/cilia is also identified on late-born cortical pyramidal neurons, although early- and late-born cortical neurons display the same cilia orientation. Together, this study provides the first evidence demonstrating that late-born pyramidal neurons exhibit a reverse movement for cell positioning, and primary cilia regulate pyramidal neuronal positioning to the deep and superficial sublayers in the hippocampus.

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