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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Alejandro E. Camacho ◽  
Jason S. McLachlan

Requirements for the protection or restriction of species are based on regulatory classifications such as “native” or “invasive,” which become anachronistic when climate change drives species outside of their historical geographic range. Furthermore, such regulatory classifications are inconsistent across the patchwork of land ownership that species must traverse as they move between jurisdictions or when transported by humans, which obstructs effective regional management. We surveyed the U.S. laws and regulations relevant to species movement and found that the immigration of species to new jurisdictions makes paradoxical existing regulatory language that sets the categories of species deserving protection or removal. Climate change is universal and progressing rapidly, which provides a shrinking window to reconcile regulatory language originally developed for a static environment.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12476
Marlies Resch ◽  
Marcela Suarez-Rubio

Farmland birds have declined in the last decades mostly due to agriculture intensification. The Woodlark Lullula arborea, a farmland species of conservation concern and protected by the European Bird Directive, occurs in a variety of habitats across its geographic range. Although habitat heterogeneity has been recognized as a key feature, the preference or avoidance of particular habitat attributes might differ across its range because different localities may have distinct conditions. Such variation would challenge conservation efforts at the local level. Our aim was to assess habitat associations of Woodlarks and determine whether the habitat attributes identified as important in other locations across its range could be generalised and applied to Austrian populations. In addition, habitat associations can be influenced by land-use change. We examined changes in land use from 2007 to 2016 in 15 municipalities surrounding areas occupied by Woodlarks. We quantified the composition and configuration of the local landscape surrounding 18 singing males’ territories and 16 non-territory sites. We found that the probability of Woodlarks territories increased with landscape heterogeneity between 50% and 70%, increased with dispersed bare soil patches, decreased with overall patch density and were away from dirt roads. Contrary to our expectation, there was no indication of land-use change. In contrast to previous studies, vegetation height, the presence and proximity to woodland were not identified as important habitat characteristics. Thus, some conservation recommendations can be derived from other localities, for example, maintaining or enhancing landscape heterogeneity. However, others should be adapted to local conditions. In Austria, conservation efforts should focus on including dispersed patches of bare soil and limiting the development of dirt roads nearby Woodlark territories, in addition to promoting a heterogeneous landscape.

Check List ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 1585-1591
Daniel Reynoso-Velasco

The geographic range of the saucer bug Ambrysus signoreti Stål, 1862 is reported and mapped for the first time. Results are based on records from approximately 1,700 specimens examined from seven collections. New distribution records are presented from the Mexican states of Coahuila, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, and Tamaulipas. This species is exclusively distributed in the eastern part of Mexico, in the Sierra Madre Oriental, Tamaulipas, and Veracruzan biogeographic provinces.

Check List ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 1521-1531
Nia Kurniawan ◽  
Luhur Septiadi ◽  
Muhammad Fathoni ◽  
Gigih Setia Wibawa ◽  
Panupong Thammachoti

Psammophis indochinensis Smith, 1943 was reported in the eastern Java and Bali of Indonesia despite its primary geographic range being in the Indochina region. We confirm its presence in Bali based on a newly collected specimen and provide morphological and genetic data. The specimen was found in a lowland, urban areas near open grassland habitat, which confirms the distribution of P. indochinensis along the northern coast of Bali. We note some character aberrations in the supralabials compared to Thailand specimens, suggesting an extended character. The basal clade position of P. indochinensis raises the possibility of an intercontinental dispersal scenario of this African-origin snake.

PhytoKeys ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 185 ◽  
pp. 17-26
Jiang-Ping Shu ◽  
Zi-Yue Liu ◽  
Zhi-Rong Gu ◽  
Li-Jun Chen ◽  
Hong-Jin Wei ◽  

Dryopteris wulingshanensis, a new species growing on limestone in the Wulingshan Mountains, Hunan, China, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to D. jishouensis and D. gymnophylla on general morphological traits, such as the form of scales, rhizome and sori, but differs by the number of vascular bundles at the base of the petiole, length to width ratio of lamina, stalk length of basal pinnae, division of the lamina, apex form of the pinnule and habitat. Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analysis using the chloroplast rbcL gene suggested that D. wulingshanensis, as the sister group of D. jishouensis, is a monophyletic clade. According to its restricted geographic range, small populations and few individuals, D. wulingshanensis should be considered endangered, according to the IUCN Red List criteria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (11) ◽  
pp. 939
Mila Santos ◽  
Ignacio Cesanelli ◽  
Fernando Diánez ◽  
Brenda Sánchez-Montesinos ◽  
Alejandro Moreno-Gavíra

Endophytic fungi have been studied in recent decades to understand how they interact with their hosts, the types of relationships they establish, and the potential effects of this interaction. Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are isolated from healthy plants and form melanised structures in the roots, including inter- and intracellular hyphae and microsclerotia, causing low host specificity and covering a wide geographic range. Many studies have revealed beneficial relationships between DSE and their hosts, such as enhanced plant growth, nutrient uptake, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Furthermore, in recent decades, studies have revealed the ability of DSE to mitigate the negative effects of crop diseases, thereby highlighting DSE as potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases (BCAs). Given the importance of these fungi in nature, this article is a review of the role of DSE as BCAs. The findings of increasing numbers of studies on these fungi and their relationships with their plant hosts are also discussed to enable their use as a tool for the integrated management of crop diseases and pests.

2021 ◽  
Emily A Green ◽  
Jonathan L Klassen

Within social insect colonies, microbiomes often differ between castes due to their different functional roles, and between colony locations. Trachymyrmex septentrionalis fungus-growing ants form colonies throughout the eastern USA and Northern Mexico that include workers, female and male alates (unmated reproductive castes), larvae, and pupae. How T. septentrionalis microbiomes vary across this geographic range and between castes is unknown. Our sampling of individual ants from colonies across the Eastern USA revealed a conserved core T. septentrionalis worker ant microbiome, and that worker ant microbiomes are more conserved within colonies than between them. A deeper sampling of individual ants from two colonies that included all available castes (pupae, larvae, workers, female and male alates), from both before and after adaptation to controlled laboratory conditions, revealed that ant microbiomes from each colony, caste, and rearing condition were typically conserved within but not between each sampling category. Tenericute bacterial symbionts were especially abundant in these ant microbiomes and varied widely in abundance between sampling categories. This study demonstrates how individual insect colonies primarily drive the composition of their microbiomes, and that these microbiomes are further modified by developmental differences between insect castes and the different environmental conditions experienced by each colony.

A. Elizabeth Arnold ◽  
Alison H. Harrington ◽  
Yu-Ling Huang ◽  
Jana M. U'Ren ◽  
Nicholas C. Massimo ◽  

A growing interest in fungi that occur within symptom-less plants and lichens (endophytes) has uncovered previously uncharacterized species in diverse biomes worldwide. In many temperate and boreal forests, endophytic Coniochaeta (Sacc.) Cooke (Coniochaetaceae, Coniochaetales, Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) are commonly isolated on standard media, but rarely are characterized. We examined 26 isolates of Coniochaeta housed at the Gilbertson Mycological Herbarium. The isolates were collected from healthy photosynthetic tissues of conifers, angiosperms, mosses and lichens in Canada, Sweden and the United States. Their barcode sequences (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S; ITS rDNA) were ≤97% similar to any documented species available through GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses based on two loci (ITS rDNA and translation elongation factor 1-alpha) indicated that two isolates represented Coniochaeta cymbiformispora, broadening the ecological niche and geographic range of a species known previously from burned soil in Japan. The remaining 24 endophytes represented three previously undescribed species that we characterize here: Coniochaeta elegans sp. nov., Coniochaeta montana sp. nov. and Coniochaeta nivea sp. nov. Each has a wide host range, including lichens, bryophytes and vascular plants. C. elegans sp. nov. and C. nivea sp. nov. have wide geographic ranges. C. montana sp. nov. occurs in the Madrean biome of Arizona (USA), where it is sympatric with the other species described here. All three species display protease, chitinase and cellulase activity in vitro. Overall, this study provides insight into the ecological and evolutionary diversity of Coniochaeta and suggests that these strains may be amenable for studies of traits relevant to a horizontally transmitted, symbiotic lifestyle.

Elena Valdés-Correcher ◽  
Anna Popova ◽  
Andrea Galmán ◽  
Andreas Prinzing ◽  
Andrey Selikhovkin ◽  

Urbanization is recognized as an important driver of the diversity and abundance of tree associated insect herbivores, but its consequences for insect herbivory are controversial. A likely source of variability among studies is the insufficient consideration of intra-urban variability in forest cover. With the help of citizen scientists, we investigated the independent and interactive effect of urbanization and local canopy cover on insect herbivory in the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) throughout most of its geographic range in Europe. The damage caused by chewing insect herbivores as well as the incidence of leaf-mining and gall-inducing herbivores consistently decreased with increasing urbanization around focal oaks. Herbivory by chewing herbivores increased with increasing forest cover, regardless of urbanization. In contrast, an increase in local canopy cover buffered the negative effect of urbanization on leaf-miners and strengthened its effect on gall-inducers. These results show the complexity of plant-herbivore interactions in urbanized areas, highlighting that the presence of local canopy cover within cities has the potential to attenuate or modify the effect of urbanization on biotic interactions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-87
Željko Sekulić ◽  
Saša Kunovac

UDK: 599.742.4(497.6) The Stoat occupies a wide range of habitats. It is often found in successional or forest-edge habitats, in the scrub, alpine meadows, marshes, riparian woodlands, hedgerows, and riverbanks that have high densities of small mammals, especially Microtus and Arvicola voles (KİNG, 1983). PULLİAİNEN, (1999) stated that coniferous and mixed woodlands are preferred, but that many other habitats are used including tundra and the summits of fells and mountains. Dense forests and deserts are avoided (KİNG, 1983). Although mentioned in all to-day's Laws on Hunting (1893 – 2014) in Bosnia-Herzegovina, there are not so many records of this species or official reports in hunting bag. Considering its geographic range (IUCN 2020), in Bosnia-Herzegovina, the stoat is recorded only in the western and northern parts of the country. İn this paper, we presented new localities where the stoat was observed in Bosnia-Herzegovina, as well as types of habitats where it was recorded.

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