hydrodynamic forces
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Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 208
Jan Lenz ◽  
Frederik Fuest ◽  
Jan Henrik Finke ◽  
Heike Bunjes ◽  
Arno Kwade ◽  

Disintegration and dispersion are functional properties of tablets relevant for the desired API release. The standard disintegration test (SDT) described in different pharmacopoeias provides only limited information on these complex processes. It is considered not to be comparable to the biorelevant conditions due to the frequent occurrence of high hydrodynamic forces, among other reasons. In this study, 3D tomographic laser-induced fluorescence imaging (3D Tomo-LIF) is applied to analyse tablet disintegration and dispersion. Disintegration time (DT) and time-resolved particle size distribution in close proximity to the tablet are determined in a continuously operated flow channel, adjustable to very low fluid velocities. A case study on tablets of different porosity, which are composed of pharmaceutical polymers labelled with a fluorescent dye, a filler, and disintegrants, is presented to demonstrate the functionality and precision of the novel method. DT results from 3D Tomo-LIF are compared with results from the SDT, confirming the analytical limitations of the pharmacopoeial disintegration test. Results from the 3D Tomo-LIF method proved a strong impact of fluid velocity on disintegration and dispersion. Generally, shorter DTs were determined when cross-linked sodium carboxymethly cellulose (NaCMCXL) was used as disintegrant compared to polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). Tablets containing Kollidon VA64 were found to disintegrate by surface erosion. The novel method provides an in-depth understanding of the functional behaviour of the tablet material, composition and structural properties under in vivo-like hydrodynamic forces regarding disintegration and the temporal progress of dispersion. We consider the 3D Tomo-LIF in vitro method to be of improved biorelevance in terms of hydrodynamic conditions in the human stomach.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Serhat Yilmaz ◽  
Gülten Altıokka Yılmaz

Purpose The development of robust control algorithms for the position, velocity and trajectory control of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) depends on the accuracy of their mathematical models. Accuracy of the model is determined by precise estimation of the UUV hydrodynamic parameters. The purpose of this study is to determine the hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on an underwater vehicle with complex body geometry and moving at low speeds and to achieve the accurate coefficients associated with them. Design/methodology/approach A three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) model of UUV is designed with one-to-one dimensions. 3D fluid flow simulations are conducted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software programme in the solution of Navier Stokes equations for laminar and turbulent flow analysis. The coefficients depending on the hydrodynamic forces and moments are determined by the external flow analysis using the CFD programme. The Flow Simulation k-ε turbulence model is used for the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow. Hydrodynamic properties such as lift and drag coefficients and roll and yaw moment coefficients are calculated. The parameters are compared with the coefficient values found by experimental methods. Findings Although the modular type UUV has a complex body geometry, the comparative results of the experiments and simulations confirm that the defined model parameters are accurate and close to the actual experimental values. In the proposed k-ε method, the percentage error in the estimation of drag and lifting coefficients is decreased to 4.2% and 8.39%, respectively. Practical implications The model coefficients determined in this study can be used in high-level control simulations which leads to the development of robust real-time controllers for complex-shaped modular UUVs. Originality/value The Lucky Fin UUV with 4 degrees of freedom is a specific design and its CAD model is first extracted. Verification of simulation results by experiments is generally less referenced in studies. However, it provides more precise parameter identification of the model. Proposed study offers a simple and low-cost experimental measurement method for verification of the hydrodynamic parameters. The extracted model and coefficients are worthwhile references for the analysis of modular type UUVs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 244 ◽  
pp. 110446
Yuchao Yuan ◽  
Mengtian Zheng ◽  
Hongxiang Xue ◽  
Zhongdi Duan ◽  
Wenyong Tang

A.O. Svoykin ◽  

Due to a sharp change in the direction and velocity of the fluid flow in the hydraulic distributor, hydrodynamic forces arise. When positioning and holding the spool, the magnitude of the above forces determines the required control power. The aim of the article was to find an optimal constructive solution that would reduce the influence of hydrodynamic forces. In the article we have considered the theoretical foundations laid in the analytical solution of the problem of calculating the magnitude of the hydrodynamic force acting on the plunger of the spool. In addition, a numerical experiment was carried out using CAD Solidworks and the Flow Simulation application package and a comparison of the results obtained with the analytical solution of the problem. During the numerical experiment, it was found that by upgrading the spool sleeve, it is possible to reduce the value of the hydrodynamic force by 4.5 times, compared with the original design. At the same time, it was found that the modernization of the plunger does not further reduce the maximum hydrodynamic forces. The article highlights the economic benefits of reducing the required power to control the hydraulic distributor. The article may be of interest to both researchers whose research interests lie in the field of hydrodynamics, and manufacturers of hydraulics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (6) ◽  
pp. 888-896
Juan Gabriel Rueda-Bayona ◽  
Laura Gil ◽  
Jose Manuel Calderón

The high development of the offshore industry for supporting new marine and renewable energy projects requires a constant improvement of methods for structure designing. Because recent studies warned that maximum environmental loads occur during low sea states and not during extreme sea states as recommend by the offshore standards (e.g., RP 2AWSD-2014), this study used measured wave and current data for analyzing that warning. The Colombian Caribbean coast was selected as the study area, and in situ ADCP data combined with Reanalysis and numerical data was used for identifying proper sea states for the analysis. Then, two low and one extreme sea states were selected and their associated current profiles were extracted, for providing input data for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations to evaluate the effect of the hydrodynamic forces over a floating structure. The results showed that low sea states generated maximum loads and rotations in the floating structure, and the extreme sea states caused high-frequency vibrations that could provoke structural dynamics problems such as failures due to fatigue or sudden collapse by resonance and amplification.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Nitin D. Thulkar ◽  
Satoru Yamaguchi

Abstract Leg placement and removal are the two most critical operational modes for dynamically positioned jack-ups when working close to an offshore asset. Any positional deviation may lead to collision and damage to the asset. The industry operates with a weak link between the dynamic positioning (DP) system and the jacking system. Current DP systems operate without any sensors identifying the hydrodynamic force variations on the legs and spudcans, which vary between different leg and spudcan designs. When the spudcan is near to the sea bottom, the hydrodynamic force must be reported to avoid large positional deviations driven by the DP system. This article promotes a mechanism to measure these forces using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to analyze the jack-up behavior, when the spudcan assembly is operating close to the sea bottom. Introduction A jack-up’s dynamic positioning (DP) control system requires minimum 23–30 minutes for the mathematical model to learn the vessel’s hydrodynamic behavior and response to the environment. Although when moving between locations, DP jack-up vessels provide time for the DP model to learn the hydrodynamic behavior, the spudcan that holds the vessel position and headings does not allow the mathematical model to learn. The residual current remains constant until the spudcan is in the seabed. As a result, the DP mathematical model-building process does not help the DP system to estimate the additional forces in the form of residual current. Soon after the spudcan detaches from the seabed, the vessel drift occurs because the vessel thrusters’ response need a rapid response of thrust and azimuth (directions). The DP system manufacturers currently use a sensorless approach to account for the hydrodynamic forces on the legs and spudcans to build a factor into the mathematical model. The jack-up DP system addresses two simultaneous forces on the legs. The leg element in the air is subject to aerodynamic effects and the leg and spudcan elements in the water are subject to hydrodynamic effects. DP systems currently use drag coefficients (Cd) to compute drag forces, however the hydrodynamic force variations during the complete lowering and raising processes are never completely considered. This weak link in the overall operation leads to positional error and is generally unrecognized by the vessel operators. The risk falls to DP officer and the jacking master to handle. The DP and jacking simultaneous operations mode (SIMOPS) may easily last between 15 and 90 minutes, depending on jacking speed, operational water depth, and field procedures, on approach to the asset. The area of operation is close to the asset, which increases the risk of collision with the asset. Most of the studies on jack-up vessels focus on impact force acting on the leg during touchdown or penetrations, such as Elkadi et al. (2014) and Kreuzer et al. (2014).

2021 ◽  
Vol 2061 (1) ◽  
pp. 012136
K P Morgunov ◽  
G Ryabov ◽  
I Buchnev

Abstract The construction of the low-pressure Nizhny Novgorod hydroelectric complex covered by the Strategy for the Development of Inland Water Transport of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030 envisages a ship lock as part of the hydroelectric system to ensure ships passage. One of the options under consideration is a ship lock with a head power system, which uses short bypass water-circulating culvert for filling and emptying the chamber. At the same time, an important task is to select the optimal modes ensuring movement of the gates of the filling and emptying systems, in which the normative values of the hydrodynamic forces influencing the vessel in the chamber during the lock process would not be exceeded. The article describes the experience of performing laboratory hydraulic studies of the ship lock model and presents the results of determining the optimal modes of locks movement in the ship lock filling and emptying systems. The studies were carried out on a model located in the hydrotechnical laboratory named after Professor V.E. Timonov of the State University of Maritime and River Fleet named after Admiral S.O. Makarov. The article describes the experience of performing laboratory hydraulic studies of the ship lock model and presents the results of determining the optimal modes of gates movement in the ship lock filling and emptying systems. The studies were carried out on a model located in the hydrotechnical laboratory named after Professor V.E. Timonov of the State University of Maritime and River Fleet named after Admiral S.O. Makarov. The studies included three series of measurements taken at different speeds of gates movement. The speeds were assigned based on the following idea: the maximum hydrodynamic forces of one of the series were close to the permissible values, and of the other two – 30–50 % smaller and larger, respectively. The experimental results determined the optimal operating modes of the systems for filling and emptying the lock chamber. It is recommended to select of the optimal modes of gates movement in full-scale conditions on the newly built ship locks immediately after their construction.

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