hiv prevention
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Kezia Muthoni Njoroge ◽  
Mima Cattan ◽  
Martha Chinouya ◽  
Beth Maina Ahlberg

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262043
Hilton Humphries ◽  
Michele Upfold ◽  
Gethwana Mahlase ◽  
Makhosazana Mdladla ◽  
Tanuja N. Gengiah ◽  

Preventing new HIV infections, especially amongst young women, is key to ending the HIV epidemic especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Potent antiretroviral (ARV) drugs used as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are currently being formulated as long-acting implantable devices, or nanosuspension injectables that release drug at a sustained rate providing protection from acquiring HIV. PrEP as implants (PrEP Implants) offers an innovative and novel approach, expanding the HIV prevention toolbox. Feedback from providers and future users in the early clinical product development stages may identify modifiable characteristics which can improve acceptability and uptake of new technologies. Healthcare workers (HCWs) perspectives and lessons learned during the rollout of contraceptive implants will allow us to understand what factors may impact the roll-out of PrEP implants. We conducted eighteen interviews with HCWs (9 Nurses and 9 Community Healthcare Workers) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. HCWs listed the long-acting nature of the contraceptive implant as a key benefit, helping to overcome healthcare system barriers like heavy workloads and understaffing. However, challenges like side effects, migration of the implant, stakeholder buy-in and inconsistent training on insertion and removal hampered the roll-out of the contraceptive implant. For PrEP implants, HCWs preferred long-acting products that were palpable and biodegradable. Our findings highlighted that the characteristics of PrEP implants that are perceived to be beneficial by HCWs may not align with that of potential users, potentially impacting the acceptability and uptake of PrEP implants. Further our data highlight the need for sustained and multi-pronged approaches to training HCWs and introducing new health technologies into communities. Finding a balance between the needs of HCWs that accommodate their heavy workloads, limited resources at points of delivery of care and the needs and preferences of potential users need to be carefully considered in the development of PrEP implants.

2022 ◽  
Momina Khan ◽  
Katie MacEntee ◽  
Reuben Kiptui ◽  
Amy Berkum ◽  
Abe Oudshoorn ◽  

Abstract Introduction: UNICEF estimates that there are as many as 100 million street-involved youth (SIY) globally. Marginalized conditions put SIY at higher risk of HIV and adverse outcomes once HIV-positive. The objective of this analysis was to describe barriers and facilitators of accessing HIV prevention, testing, and treatment services as Phase I of an implementation study evaluating the use of Peer Navigators to increase access to HIV services.Methods: Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), and Theatre Testing were conducted with individuals who identify as SIY, health care providers, and community stakeholders living in Canada (Toronto, Montreal, London) and Kenya (Eldoret, Huruma, Kitale). Data were analyzed using a directed content approach, guided by the socio-ecological model (SEM).Results: Across the six sites were 195 participants: 64 SIY, 42 healthcare providers, and 97 community-based stakeholders. Barriers were identified at the societal (e.g. intersectional stigma and discrimination), public policy (e.g., inadequate access to basic needs, legal documentation, lack of health insurance, and limited community-based funding), institutional (e.g. lack of inclusive education and training, inadequate HIV educational outreach, and restrictive service provision), interpersonal (e.g., ineffective communication from healthcare providers), and intrapersonal levels (e.g. lack of trust and associated fear, low perception for healthcare, and lack of self-esteem). These contributed to limited HIV services utilization among SIY. Conversely, numerous facilitators were also identified at the public policy (e.g. affordable HIV services and treatment), institutional (e.g. available and accessible HIV prevention tools, HIV education and awareness programs, and holistic models of care), interpersonal level (e.g., systems navigation support, peer support, and personal relationships), and intrapersonal levels (e.g. self-efficacy) as positively supporting SIY access to HIV services.Conclusions: Intersectional stigma was a critical barrier in all sites, and policies and programs that foster welcoming environments for youth from diverse backgrounds and living circumstances may be better able to respond to the HIV service needs of this high risk population. Social support and navigation services were reported to facilitate access to HIV services in all sites.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Junyan Jin ◽  
Runsong Sun ◽  
Tingting Mu ◽  
Taiyi Jiang ◽  
Lili Dai ◽  

Background: The use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in reducing HIV risk, but it is underused by men who have sex with men (MSM) due to certain psychological and sociostructural factors. This article assessed the awareness and use of PEP among MSM in an effort to increase the visibility and uptake of PEP among at-risk populations.Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of the PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar electronic databases. Studies were screened for inclusion, and relevant data were abstracted, assessed for bias, and synthesized. Pooled effect estimates were calculated using random effects meta-analysis, meta-regression and subgroup analysis, and a qualitative review and risk of bias assessment were performed (PROSPERO, CRD42019123815).Results: Twenty eligible studies involving 12,579 MSM were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of the proportions of MSM who were aware of PEP was modest at 59.9% (95% CI: 50.5~68.7) and that of MSM who previously used PEP was very low at 4.9% (95% CI: 2.4~9.8). PEP awareness showed no clear change over time, while PEP use significantly changed over time. Multiple factors affected awareness, including educational attainment, race/ethnicity, levels of HIV stigma, access to condoms, and so on. Many factors could potentially impede or facilitate the use of PEP, such as income, lack of PEP information, and partnership.Conclusion: We observed that PEP is an underused HIV prevention strategy among MSM and that once MSM become aware of PEP, the majority are willing to use it if they are supported appropriately in terms of a range of individual, social, and structural barriers.Systematic Review Registration:, PROSPERO [CRD42019123815].

Yu Liu ◽  
Savanah Russ ◽  
Jason Mitchell ◽  
Sarahmona Przybyla ◽  
Chen Zhang

Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in the United States (U.S.) are disproportionally burdened by HIV and experience adverse social determinants of health. Minimal research has examined quality of life (QoL) and psychosocial/behavioral determinants among HIV-negative or status-unknown YMSM. We conducted a study with YMSM from two U.S. cities to assess their QoL scores, and whether specific QoL domains (e.g., physical, psychological, social, and environment) were associated with their demographics, psychosocial determinants, behavioral risk factors, and HIV prevention measures. Black YMSM, YMSM of low socioeconomic status (below high school education, income < $20,000, and lack of health insurance), and YMSM who did not disclose their sexual orientation had the lowest QoL scores across all domains. Substance use and unprotected anal intercourse were negatively associated with men’s physical/psychosocial health. Housing/food instability and perceived stress were among the strongest predictors of lower QoL in all domains. Higher physical/psychological and environment QoL scores were associated with a higher likelihood of HIV testing and PrEP use. The identification of YMSM within these demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial sub-groups is important for targeted intervention to enhance their well-being and engagement with HIV prevention.

Darren L. Whitfield ◽  
LaRon E. Nelson ◽  
Arnošt Komárek ◽  
DeAnne Turner ◽  
Zhao Ni ◽  

Abstract Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) experience disproportionate rates of HIV infection in the USA, despite being no more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors than other MSM racial/ethnic groups. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to reduce risk of HIV acquisition; however, rates of PrEP use among Black MSM remain low. Clinical, psychosocial, and structural factors have been shown to impact PrEP use and adherence among Black MSM. Care coordination of HIV prevention services has the potential to improve PrEP use and adherence for Black MSM, as it has been shown to improve HIV-related care outcomes among people living with HIV. Methods Client-centered care coordination (C4) is a multi-level intervention designed to address clinical, psychosocial, and structural barriers to HIV prevention services for Black MSM within HPTN 073, a PrEP demonstration project among Black MSM in three cities in the USA. The current study examined the implementation process of C4, specifically investigating the activities, cost, time, and outcomes associated with the C4 intervention. Results On average, participants engaged in five care coordination encounters. The vast majority of care coordination activities were conducted by counselors, averaging 30 min per encounter. The cost of care coordination was relatively low with a mean cost of $8.70 per client encounter. Conclusion Although client-centered care coordination was initially implemented in well-resourced communities with robust HIV research and service infrastructure, our findings suggest that C4 can be successfully implemented in resource constrained communities.

2022 ◽  
Kayla Mae Knowles ◽  
Nadia Lauren Dowshen ◽  
Susan Lee ◽  
Amanda Tanner

BACKGROUND Engaging adolescents and young adults (AYA) who are at elevated risk for HIV acquisition or who are living with HIV in healthcare has posed a major challenge in HIV prevention and care efforts. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are a popular and accessible strategy to support AYA engagement despite barriers to care present along the HIV care continuum. Even with progress in the field of mHealth research, expert recommendations for the process of designing, evaluating, and implementing HIV-related mHealth interventions are underdeveloped. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compile expert recommendations on the development, evaluation, and implementation of AYA-focused HIV prevention and care mHealth interventions. METHODS Experts from adolescent mHealth HIV research networks and investigators of recently funded HIV mHealth projects and programs were identified and invited to complete a series of electronic surveys related to the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV-related mHealth interventions. A modified Delphi method was used to ask experts to score 35 survey items on a 4-point Likert scale from not important to very important and encouraged experts to leave additional comments in text boxes. Responses were reviewed by the researchers, a team of four HIV mHealth intervention experts. The average importance ratings from survey responses were calculated and then categorized as retained (high importance), flagged (mid-level importance), or dropped (no/low importance). Additionally, thematic analysis of expert comments helped modify survey items for the next survey round. An evaluation of the level of agreement among experts on the most important items followed each round until consensus was reached. RESULTS Of the 35 invited experts, 23 completed the first survey representing a variety of roles within a research team. Following two rounds of Delphi surveys, experts scored 86% of the 30 survey items included in round two as important to very important. The final consensus items included 24 recommendations related to the mHealth intervention design process (n=15), evaluation (n=2), and implementation (n=7). The three survey items with the highest average scores focused on the design process, specifically, (1) creating a diverse team including researchers, app software developers, youth representation, (2) the importance of AYA-focused content, and the (3) value of an iterative process. Additionally, experts highlighted the importance of establishing the best ways to collect data and the types of data for collection during the evaluation process as well as constructing a plan for participant technology disruption when implementing an mHealth intervention. CONCLUSIONS The modified Delphi method was a useful tool to convene experts to determine recommendations for AYA-focused HIV prevention and care mHealth interventions. These recommendations can inform future mHealth interventions. To ensure acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of these AYA HIV prevention interventions, the focus must be on specific needs of AYA by including representation of AYA in the process, including consistent and relevant content, ensuring appropriate data is collected, and considering technology and health accessibility barriers.

10.2196/24126 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e24126
Arjee Restar ◽  
Anthony Surace ◽  
Alexander Adia ◽  
William Goedel ◽  
Adedotun Ogunbajo ◽  

Background The Philippines is experiencing an HIV crisis and is considering implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a national public health strategy for HIV prevention for cisgender men who have sex with men (cis-MSM). However, critical information on the awareness of PrEP among cis-MSM is needed to roll out this public health initiative. Objective This study aims to assess PrEP awareness and related correlates (ie, sociodemographic variables, social factors, and health care access and use) among Filipino cis-MSM. Methods We conducted a web-based survey with Filipino cis-MSM (n=179) residing in the cities of Manila and Cebu, Philippines. Multivariable analysis procedures were performed to examine the factors associated with PrEP awareness. Results Our sample demonstrated high awareness (134/179, 74.9%) and interest (159/179, 88.8%) in taking PrEP. The adjusted model showed that greater odds of PrEP awareness were associated with having a college education or higher versus a high school education or lower (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.30, 95% CI 1.01-52.47), earning between PHP 10,000 (US $198.6) and PHP 20,000 (US $397.2) versus <PHP 10,000 (US $198.60; aOR 9.32, 95% CI 1.41-6.22), having had a prior HIV test (aOR 6.06, 95% CI 1.20-13.55), having high HIV knowledge (aOR 3.50, 95% CI 1.11-10.98), and having friends who discussed PrEP (aOR 11.17, 95% CI 2.73-14.5). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that Filipino cis-MSM are aware of and interested in taking PrEP, but there is currently an unmet need for such biomedical HIV prevention technologies among this population. Incorporating PrEP education into routine HIV screening and leveraging cis-MSM social networks may be useful in optimizing potential PrEP implementation in the Philippines.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Stefanos Limnaios ◽  
Evangelia Georgia Kostaki ◽  
Georgios Adamis ◽  
Myrto Astriti ◽  
Maria Chini ◽  

Our aim was to estimate the date of the origin and the transmission rates of the major local clusters of subtypes A1 and B in Greece. Phylodynamic analyses were conducted in 14 subtype A1 and 31 subtype B clusters. The earliest dates of origin for subtypes A1 and B were in 1982.6 and in 1985.5, respectively. The transmission rate for the subtype A1 clusters ranged between 7.54 and 39.61 infections/100 person years (IQR: 9.39, 15.88), and for subtype B clusters between 4.42 and 36.44 infections/100 person years (IQR: 7.38, 15.04). Statistical analysis revealed that the average difference in the transmission rate between the PWID and the MSM clusters was 6.73 (95% CI: 0.86 to 12.60; p = 0.026). Our study provides evidence that the date of introduction of subtype A1 in Greece was the earliest in Europe. Transmission rates were significantly higher for PWID than MSM clusters due to the conditions that gave rise to an extensive PWID HIV-1 outbreak ten years ago in Athens, Greece. Transmission rate can be considered as a valuable measure for public health since it provides a proxy of the rate of epidemic growth within a cluster and, therefore, it can be useful for targeted HIV prevention programs.

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