encephalitis virus
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2109 ◽  
Vol 25 (2) ◽  
pp. 342-345 ◽  
Jolianne M. Rijks ◽  
Margriet G.E. Montizaan ◽  
Nine Bakker ◽  
Ankje de Vries ◽  
Steven Van Gucht ◽  

2022 ◽  
Michael Walsh ◽  
Amrita Pattanaik ◽  
Navya Vyas ◽  
Deepak Saxena ◽  
Cameron Webb ◽  

Wild reservoirs of Japanese encephalitis virus are under-studied globally, which presents critical knowledge gaps for JEV infection ecology despite decades of received wisdom regarding this high-impact mosquito-borne virus. As a result, ardeid birds, generally understood to be the primary reservoirs for JEV, as well as other waterbirds occupying landscapes at high risk for spillover to humans, are frequently ignored by current surveillance mechanisms and infrastructure. This is particularly true in India, which experiences a high annual burden of human outbreaks. Incorporating wild reservoirs into surveillance of human and livestock populations is therefore essential but will first require a data-driven approach to target individual host species. The current study sought to define a preliminary ecological profile of JEV hosts based on 1) species ecological traits, and 2) species presence and abundance adjusted for the biotic constraints of sympatry. Optimal host species tended to be generalists and demonstrate regionally-increasing populations. While ardeid bird species richness, abundance, and relative abundance did demonstrate the strongest and most consistent associations with the distribution of human JEV outbreaks, this study also identified several individual species among two other bird families in these landscapes, the Anatidae and the Rallidae, which also exhibited an optimal host profile and were strongly associated with the distribution of outbreaks. The findings from this work provide the first data-driven evidence base to inform wildlife sampling for the monitoring of JEV circulation in outbreak hotspots in India and thus identify good preliminary targets for the development of One Health wildlife JEV surveillance.

Zoonoses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Clint A. Haines ◽  
Rafael K. Campos ◽  
Sasha R. Azar ◽  
K. Lane Warmbrod ◽  
Tiffany F. Kautz ◽  

Background: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an arbovirus endemic to the Americas, for which no vaccines or antiviral agents have been approved. TC-83 and V3526 are the best-characterized vaccine candidates for VEEV. Both are live-attenuated vaccines and have been associated with safety concerns, although fewer concerns exist for V3526. A previous attempt to improve the TC-83 vaccine focused on further attenuating the vaccine by adding mutations that alter the error-incorporation rate of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Methods: The research herein examined the effects of these RdRp mutations in V3526 by cloning the 3X and 4X strains, assessing vaccine efficacy against challenge in adult female CD-1 mice, examining neutralizing-antibody titers, investigating vaccine tissue tropism, and testing the stability of the mutant strains. Results: The V3526 RdRp mutants exhibited less tissue tropism in the spleen and kidney than the wild-type V3526, while maintaining vaccine efficacy. Illumina sequencing indicated that the RdRp mutations reverted to wild-type V3526 after five passages in murine pup brains. Conclusions: The observed genotypic reversion is likely to be of limited concern, because wild-type V3526 remains an effective vaccine capable of providing protection. Our results indicate that the V3526 RdRp mutants may be a safer vaccine design than the original V3526.

Ana Vasić ◽  
Jovana Bjekić ◽  
Gorana Veinović ◽  
Darko Mihaljica ◽  
Ratko Sukara ◽  

This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) among different groups of people in Serbia. Professionally tick-exposed persons (PTEPs), health care workers (HCWs), and the general population (GP) were subjected to an anonymous, voluntary, online questionnaire using Microsoft Forms. A total of 663 questionnaire responses were collected (February–March 2021), while 642 were included in the analysis. The significant difference in knowledge in TBDs existed between GP and PTEPs, and HCWs (p < 0.001). The perception of risk-to-tick exposure and TBDs was generally high (42.4 (95% CI: 33.6–51.2) within GP, 44.9 (95% CI: 35.8–53.9) within PTEPs and 46.2 (95% CI: 38.0–54.5) within HCWs), while fear was low (13.7 (95% CI: 7.9–19.5) within GP, 12.6 (95% CI: 7.3–19.9) within PTEPs, and 13.5 (95% CI: 7.4–19.5) within HCWs). Protective practices differed across groups (F (2639) = 12.920, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.039), with both PTEPs (t = 3.621, Cohen d = 0.332, p < 0.001) and HCWs (t = 4.644, Cohen d = 0.468, p < 0.001) adhering to more protective practices than the GP, without differences between PTEPs and HCWs (t = 1.256, Cohen d = 0.137, p = 0.421). Further education about TBDs in Serbia is required and critical points were identified in this study.

2022 ◽  
Charles Brandon Stauft ◽  
Aaron T Phillips ◽  
Tony T Wang ◽  
Kenneth Olson

Herein we describe a previously uninvestigated salivary gland escape barrier (SEB) in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes infected with two different strains of Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV). The WEEV strains were originally isolated either from mosquitoes (IMP181) or a human patient (McMillan). Both IMP181 and McMillan viruses were fully able to infect the salivary glands of Culex tarsalis after intrathoracic injection as determined by expression of mCherry fluorescent protein. IMP181, however, was better adapted to transmission as measured by virus titer in saliva as well as transmission rates in infected mosquitoes. We used chimeric recombinant WEEV strains to show that inclusion of IMP181-derived structural genes partially circumvents the SEB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
pp. 0
Himani Dhanze ◽  
Karikalan M ◽  
Deepa Mehta ◽  
Megha Gupta ◽  
Akash Mote ◽  

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