fluorescent protein
Recently Published Documents





Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Shuai Zhao ◽  
Guoli Yang ◽  
Xiaochen Xie ◽  
Guangbo Yan ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as a universal energy currency, takes a central role in many biochemical reactions with potential for the synthesis of numerous high-value products. However, the high cost of ATP limits industrial ATP-dependent enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Here, we investigated the effect of cell-surface display of phosphotransferase on ATP regeneration in recombinant Escherichia coli. By N-terminal fusion of the super-folder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP), we successfully displayed the phosphotransferase of Pseudomonas brassicacearum (PAP-Pb) on the surface of E. coli cells. The catalytic activity of sfGFP-PAP-Pb intact cells was 2.12 and 1.47 times higher than that of PAP-Pb intact cells, when the substrate was AMP and ADP, respectively. The conversion of ATP from AMP or ADP were up to 97.5% and 80.1% respectively when catalyzed by the surface-displayed enzyme at 37 °C for only 20 min. The whole-cell catalyst was very stable, and the enzyme activity of the whole cell was maintained above 40% after 40 rounds of recovery. Under this condition, 49.01 mg/mL (96.66 mM) ATP was accumulated for multi-rounds reaction. This ATP regeneration system has the characteristics of low cost, long lifetime, flexible compatibility, and great robustness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Dominik Weixler ◽  
Max Berghoff ◽  
Kirill V. Ovchinnikov ◽  
Sebastian Reich ◽  
Oliver Goldbeck ◽  

Abstract Background The bacteriocin nisin is naturally produced by Lactococcus lactis as an inactive prepeptide that is modified posttranslationally resulting in five (methyl-)lanthionine rings characteristic for class Ia bacteriocins. Export and proteolytic cleavage of the leader peptide results in release of active nisin. By targeting the universal peptidoglycan precursor lipid II, nisin has a broad target spectrum including important human pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Industrial nisin production is currently performed using natural producer strains resulting in rather low product purity and limiting its application to preservation of dairy food products. Results We established heterologous nisin production using the biotechnological workhorse organism Corynebacterium glutamicum in a two-step process. We demonstrate successful biosynthesis and export of fully modified prenisin and its activation to mature nisin by a purified, soluble variant of the nisin protease NisP (sNisP) produced in Escherichia coli. Active nisin was detected by a L. lactis sensor strain with strictly nisin-dependent expression of the fluorescent protein mCherry. Following activation by sNisP, supernatants of the recombinant C. glutamicum producer strain cultivated in standard batch fermentations contained at least 1.25 mg/l active nisin. Conclusions We demonstrate successful implementation of a two-step process for recombinant production of active nisin with C. glutamicum. This extends the spectrum of bioactive compounds that may be produced using C. glutamicum to a bacteriocin harboring complex posttranslational modifications. Our results provide a basis for further studies to optimize product yields, transfer production to sustainable substrates and purification of pharmaceutical grade nisin.

Imre Kalló ◽  
Azar Omrani ◽  
Frank J. Meye ◽  
Han de Jong ◽  
Zsolt Liposits ◽  

AbstractOrexin neurons are involved in homeostatic regulatory processes, including arousal and feeding, and provide a major input from the hypothalamus to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain. VTA neurons are a central hub processing reward and motivation and target the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the shell part of nucleus accumbens (NAcs). We investigated whether subpopulations of dopamine (DA) neurons in the VTA projecting either to the mPFC or the medial division of shell part of nucleus accumbens (mNAcs) receive differential input from orexin neurons and whether orexin exerts differential electrophysiological effects upon these cells. VTA neurons projecting to the mPFC or the mNAcs were traced retrogradely by Cav2-Cre virus and identified by expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Immunocytochemical analysis showed that a higher proportion of all orexin-innervated DA neurons projected to the mNAcs (34.5%) than to the mPFC (5.2%). Of all sampled VTA neurons projecting either to the mPFC or mNAcs, the dopaminergic (68.3 vs. 79.6%) and orexin-innervated DA neurons (68.9 vs. 64.4%) represented the major phenotype. Whole-cell current clamp recordings were obtained from fluorescently labeled neurons in slices during baseline periods and bath application of orexin A. Orexin similarly increased the firing rate of VTA dopamine neurons projecting to mNAcs (1.99 ± 0.61 Hz to 2.53 ± 0.72 Hz) and mPFC (0.40 ± 0.22 Hz to 1.45 ± 0.56 Hz). Thus, the hypothalamic orexin system targets mNAcs and to a lesser extent mPFC-projecting dopaminergic neurons of the VTA and exerts facilitatory effects on both clusters of dopamine neurons.

2022 ◽  
Alfredo Figueroa-Melendez ◽  
Leonora Martinez-Nunez ◽  
Adriana Maria Rico-Ramirez ◽  
Juan Manuel Martinez-Andrade ◽  
Mary Munson ◽  

The exocyst is a conserved multimeric complex that participates in the final steps of the secretion of vesicles. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the exocyst is crucial for polar growth, morphology, and the organization of the Spitzenkorper (Spk), the apical body where secretory vesicles accumulate before being delivered to the plasma membrane. In the highly polarized cells of N. crassa, the exocyst subunits SEC-3, SEC-5, SEC-6, SEC-8, and SEC-15 were previously found localized at the plasma membrane of the apices of the cells, while EXO-70 and EXO-84 occupied the frontal outer layer of the Spk, occupied by vesicles. The localization of SEC-10 had remained so far elusive. In this work, SEC-10 was tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) either at its N- or C-terminus and found localized at the plasma membrane of growing hyphal tips, similar to what was previously observed for some exocyst subunits. While expression of an N-terminally tagged version of SEC-10 at its native locus was fully viable, expression of a C-terminally tagged version at its native locus resulted in severe hyphal growth and polarity defects. Additionally, a sec-10 knockout mutant in a heterokaryotic state (with genetically different nuclei) was viable but showed a strongly aberrant phenotype, confirming that this subunit is essential to maintain hyphal morphogenesis. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the lack of a Spk in the SEC-10-GFP strain, suggesting a critical role of the exocyst in the vesicular organization at the Spk. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed fewer peptides of exocyst subunits interacting with SEC-10-GFP than with GFP-SEC-10, suggesting an essential role of the C-terminus of SEC-10 in exocyst assembly and/or stability. Altogether, our data suggest that an unobstructed C-terminus of SEC-10 is indispensable for the exocyst complex function and that a GFP tag could be blocking important subunit-subunit interactions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Aleksandra Arsić ◽  
Cathleen Hagemann ◽  
Nevena Stajković ◽  
Timm Schubert ◽  
Ivana Nikić-Spiegel

AbstractModern light microscopy, including super-resolution techniques, has brought about a demand for small labeling tags that bring the fluorophore closer to the target. This challenge can be addressed by labeling unnatural amino acids (UAAs) with bioorthogonal click chemistry. The minimal size of the UAA and the possibility to couple the fluorophores directly to the protein of interest with single-residue precision in living cells make click labeling unique. Here, we establish click labeling in living primary neurons and use it for fixed-cell, live-cell, dual-color pulse–chase, and super-resolution microscopy of neurofilament light chain (NFL). We also show that click labeling can be combined with CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering for tagging endogenous NFL. Due to its versatile nature and compatibility with advanced multicolor microscopy techniques, we anticipate that click labeling will contribute to novel discoveries in the neurobiology field.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 837
Sudip Biswas ◽  
Nancy J. Wahl ◽  
Michael J. Thomson ◽  
John M. Cason ◽  
Bill F. McCutchen ◽  

The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a legume consumed worldwide in the form of oil, nuts, peanut butter, and candy. Improving peanut production and nutrition will require new technologies to enable novel trait development. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR–Cas9) is a powerful and versatile genome-editing tool for introducing genetic changes for studying gene expression and improving crops, including peanuts. An efficient in vivo transient CRISPR–Cas9- editing system using protoplasts as a testbed could be a versatile platform to optimize this technology. In this study, multiplex CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing was performed in peanut protoplasts to disrupt a major allergen gene with the help of an endogenous tRNA-processing system. In this process, we successfully optimized protoplast isolation and transformation with green fluorescent protein (GFP) plasmid, designed two sgRNAs for an allergen gene, Ara h 2, and tested their efficiency by in vitro digestion with Cas9. Finally, through deep-sequencing analysis, several edits were identified in our target gene after PEG-mediated transformation in protoplasts with a Cas9 and sgRNA-containing vector. These findings demonstrated that a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation system can serve as a rapid and effective tool for transient expression assays and sgRNA validation in peanut.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2117451119
Justin M. Shaffer ◽  
Iva Greenwald

Conditional gene expression is a powerful tool for genetic analysis of biological phenomena. In the widely used “lox-stop-lox” approach, insertion of a stop cassette consisting of a series of stop codons and polyadenylation signals flanked by lox sites into the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of a gene prevents expression until the cassette is excised by tissue-specific expression of Cre recombinase. Although lox-stop-lox and similar approaches using other site-specific recombinases have been successfully used in many experimental systems, this design has certain limitations. Here, we describe the Floxed exon (Flexon) approach, which uses a stop cassette composed of an artificial exon flanked by artificial introns, designed to cause premature termination of translation and nonsense-mediated decay of the mRNA and allowing for flexible placement into a gene. We demonstrate its efficacy in Caenorhabditis elegans by showing that, when promoters that cause weak and/or transient cell-specific expression are used to drive Cre in combination with a gfp(flexon) transgene, strong and sustained expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is obtained in specific lineages. We also demonstrate its efficacy in an endogenous gene context: we inserted a flexon into the Argonaute gene rde-1 to abrogate RNA interference (RNAi), and restored RNAi tissue specifically by expression of Cre. Finally, we describe several potential additional applications of the Flexon approach, including more precise control of gene expression using intersectional methods, tissue-specific protein degradation, and generation of genetic mosaics. The Flexon approach should be feasible in any system where a site-specific recombination-based method may be applied.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Zachary J. Sharpe ◽  
Angela Shehu ◽  
Tomomi Ichinose

In the retina, evolutionary changes can be traced in the topography of photoreceptors. The shape of the visual streak depends on the height of the animal and its habitat, namely, woods, prairies, or mountains. Also, the distribution of distinct wavelength-sensitive cones is unique to each animal. For example, UV and green cones reside in the ventral and dorsal regions in the mouse retina, respectively, whereas in the rat retina these cones are homogeneously distributed. In contrast with the abundant investigation on the distribution of photoreceptors and the third-order neurons, the distribution of bipolar cells has not been well understood. We utilized two enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mouse lines, Lhx4-EGFP (Lhx4) and 6030405A18Rik-EGFP (Rik), to examine the topographic distributions of bipolar cells in the retina. First, we characterized their GFP-expressing cells using type-specific markers. We found that GFP was expressed by type 2, type 3a, and type 6 bipolar cells in the Rik mice and by type 3b, type 4, and type 5 bipolar cells in the Lhx4 mice. All these types are achromatic. Then, we examined the distributions of bipolar cells in the four cardinal directions and three different eccentricities of the retinal tissue. In the Rik mice, GFP-expressing bipolar cells were more highly observed in the nasal region than those in the temporal retina. The number of GFP cells was not different along with the ventral-dorsal axis. In contrast, in the Lhx4 mice, GFP-expressing cells occurred at a higher density in the ventral region than in the dorsal retina. However, no difference was observed along the nasal-temporal axis. Furthermore, we examined which type of bipolar cells contributed to the asymmetric distributions in the Rik mice. We found that type 3a bipolar cells occurred at a higher density in the temporal region, whereas type 6 bipolar cells were denser in the nasal region. The asymmetricity of these bipolar cells shaped the uneven distribution of the GFP cells in the Rik mice. In conclusion, we found that a subset of achromatic bipolar cells is asymmetrically distributed in the mouse retina, suggesting their unique roles in achromatic visual processing.

2022 ◽  
Rachel Kapelner ◽  
Allie Obermeyer

Proteins are an important class of biologics, but there are several recurring challenges to address when designing protein-based therapeutics. These challenges include: the propensity of proteins to aggregate during formulation, relatively low loading in traditional hydrophobic delivery vehicles, and inefficient cellular uptake. This last criterion is particularly challenging for anionic proteins as they cannot cross the anionic plasma membrane. Here we investigated the complex coacervation of anionic proteins with a block copolymer of opposite charge to form polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) micelles for use as a protein delivery vehicle. Using genetically modified variants of the model protein green fluorescent protein (GFP), we evaluated the role of protein charge and charge localization in the formation and stability of PEC micelles. A neutral-cationic block copolymer, POEGMA79-b-qP4VP175, was prepared via RAFT polymerization for complexation and microphase separation with the panel of engineered anionic GFPs. We found that isotropically supercharged proteins formed micelles at higher ionic strength relative to protein variants with charge localized to a polypeptide tag. We then studied GFP delivery by PEC micelles and found that they effectively delivered the protein cargo to mammalian cells. However, cellular delivery varied as a function of protein charge and charge distribution and we found an inverse relationship between the PEC micelle critical salt concentration and delivery efficiency. This model system has highlighted the potential of polyelectrolyte-complexes to deliver anionic proteins intracellularly as well as the importance of correlating solution structure and desired functional activity.

Kenya Sanada ◽  
Hiromichi Ueno ◽  
Tetsu Miyamoto ◽  
Kazuhiko Baba ◽  
Kentaro Tanaka ◽  

Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is produced in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON). Peripheral AVP, which is secreted from the posterior pituitary, is produced in the magnocellular division of the PVN (mPVN) and SON. In addition, AVP is produced in the parvocellular division of the PVN (pPVN), where corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is synthesized. These peptides synergistically modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous studies have revealed that the HPA axis was activated by the hypovolemia. However, the detailed dynamics of AVP in the pPVN under hypovolemic state has not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated the effects of hypovolemia and hyperosmolality on the hypothalamus, using AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic rats. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 3% hypertonic saline (HTN) was intraperitoneally administered in order to develop hypovolemia or hyperosmolality. AVP-eGFP intensity was robustly upregulated at 3 and 6 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of PEG or HTN in the mPVN. While in the pPVN, eGFP intensity was significantly increased at 6 h after i.p. administration of PEG with significant induction of Fos-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons. Consistently, eGFP mRNA, AVP hnRNA, and CRF mRNA in the pPVN and plasma AVP and corticosterone were significantly increased at 6 h after i.p. administration of PEG. The results suggest that AVP and CRF syntheses in the pPVN were activated by hypovolemia, resulting in the activation of the HPA axis.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document