central nervous system involvement
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2022 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
Shimaa Mostafa Abdelwhab ◽  
Lobna Ismaeil Kotb ◽  
Ghada Sameer ◽  
Ghada Dawa

Abstract Background Through the disease course, different prognostic factors have been addressed in patients with SLE admitted to intensive care unit. For instance, higher disease activity on admission, recent immunosuppressive therapy, infections, renal disease, and central nervous system involvement, all had negative effects on the outcome of the disease. It is still a clinical challenge for the physicians to manage this disease which has many aspects regarding its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and its outcome remains to be explained. The aim of our study was determining the course, outcome, and determinants of admission to intensive care unit in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Results Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus admitted to the intensive care unit in the study sample was 21.4%, and the death rate among them is 18.2%. In our study, the main causes of intensive care admission were cardiovascular causes followed by renal failure then infections. Holding the other covariates constant, a higher value of CRP, SLEDAI, and damage index value is associated with intensive care admission among lupus patients. Conclusion Our study showed that systemic lupus erythematosus patients with a higher value of CRP, SLEDAI, and damage index value were liable for intensive care unit admission. Good control of disease activity of SLE which in turn reduces damage of different body systems is mandatory. Periodic screening for functions of renal and cardiac systems is of great value. Proper screening and prophylaxis is recommended against variable causes of infections. Rheumatologists should be careful in controlling SLE active disease and to balance the doses of immunosuppressive especially in the presence of infection. They should focus the research on finding more accurate infection predictive index parameters to early predict the onset of infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Paola Di Mauro ◽  
Ignazio La Mantia ◽  
Salvatore Cocuzza ◽  
Pasqua Irene Sciancalepore ◽  
Deborak Rasà ◽  

Objective: The aim of this study was to present some cases of acute vertigo potentially related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and review the available literature about cochleovestibular dysfunction after the COVID-19 vaccination.Methods: In the period from May to July 2021, we evaluated 33 patients (mean age 54.3 ± 14.1) with “acute vertigo” post COVID-19 vaccination. A detailed medical history was taken on comorbidities, types of vaccines received, and symptoms associated. All patients underwent otoneurological evaluation, such as head impulse test, nystagmus evaluation, test of skew (HINTS) examination. Head shaking test-induced nystagmus, hyperventilation-induced nystagmus, and parossistic positional nystagmus were studied to search for vestibular impairment.Results: Symptoms included 16 patients (48.5%) with objective vertigo, 14 patients (42.4%) with subjective vertigo, and 3 patients (9.1%) with dizziness. Of the associated ear, nose, and throat (ENT) symptoms, the most expressed was tinnitus (18.2%). Bedside examination showed absent nystagmus in 7 patients (21.2%), 9 patients (27.3%) had horizontal or rotatory nystagmus, 17 patients (51.5%) had a vertical or oblique nystagmus, negative HST, or “central HINTS.”Discussion and Conclusions: The 9 patients had an evoked nystagmus pathognomonic for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; in the remaining 17 cases, peripheral vestibular dysfunction could be excluded and central disorder may be suggested. Due to the prevalence of nystagmus of non-peripheral origin, a central nervous system involvement could not be excluded. However, due to the small sample size, a definite cause–effect relationship between vaccination and vertigo cannot be inferred. In light of expected third dose, large-scale and well-designed studies are needed to better define possible adverse reactions of the COVID-19 vaccine.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Marcello Sandoni ◽  
Lidia Ciardo ◽  
Caterina Tamburini ◽  
Alessandra Boncompagni ◽  
Cecilia Rossi ◽  

Enteroviruses (EVs) are an important source of infection in the paediatric age, with most cases concerning the neonatal age and early infancy. Molecular epidemiology is crucial to understand the circulation of main serotypes in a specific area and period due to their extreme epidemiological variability. The diagnosis of EVs infection currently relies on the detection of EVs RNA in biological samples (usually cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, but also throat swabs and feces) through a polymerase chain reaction assay. Although EVs infections usually have a benign course, they sometimes become life threatening, especially when symptoms develop in the first few days of life. Mortality is primarily associated with myocarditis, acute hepatitis, and multi-organ failure. Neurodevelopmental sequelae have been reported following severe infections with central nervous system involvement. Unfortunately, at present, the treatment of EVs infections is mainly supportive. The use of specific antiviral agents in severe neonatal infections has been reported in single cases or studies including few neonates. Therefore, further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of these drugs in clinical practice.

Ishita A. Shah ◽  
Niral R. Modi

<p><strong>Background:</strong> There has been an unprecedented increase in the number of mucormycosis cases post the second wave of COVID-19 in India, with a variety of clinical manifestations. The central nervous system manifestations have proven to be especially fatal, hence these require special attention. Aims and objectives of current investigation was to study the epidemiology, clinical features, risk factors, diagnostic modalities, management and complications of CNS manifestations of mucormycosis.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a retrospective study, conducted on the mucormycosis patients admitted in G.G. hospital Jamnagar. Patients with clinically and radiologically evident central nervous system involvement were included in the study. The records of the patients were followed for 3 months post the diagnosis. 47 patients were included in the study.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the patients was 51 years. 72.34% of patients were males, and 27.65%, were females. The most common clinical feature was headache 100% followed by fever 55%. Most of the patients (97.87%) had history of COVID 19 or had active infection. 63.96% had diabetes Mellitus. The most common radiological finding was cavernous sinus thrombosis (32.60%), 72.34% underwent surgical debridement, and all the patients were administered Amphotericin B. The outcome improved significantly with surgical debridement, with recovery seen in 51.06% patients.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There has been a steep rise in the cases of mucormycosis following the COVID-19 pandemic. It is an extremely virulent infection which spreads rapidly, often causing the involvement of the central nervous system. However, early diagnosis and intervention have been found to alter the prognosis significantly.</p>

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
L. N. Wainaina Mungai ◽  
C. M. Njeru ◽  
L. A. Nyamai ◽  
M. Maina

Hunter syndrome, or mucopolysaccharidosis type 2 (MPS2), is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with the involvement of multiple organs such as the central nervous system, hepatomegaly, musculoskeletal, respiratory, cardiac, and hearing. This is due to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in body tissues leading to organ failure. Since the laboratories in Kenya do not screen for metabolic diseases, there is the likelihood of assumption that these patients do not exist. These first cases were referred from the eastern part of Kenya where the majority of inhabitants are from the same ethnic community. It was noted that there was increased mortality among boys below the age of 20 years, and hence, the families sought for help in the national referral and teaching hospital. The case series is meant to show that these cases exist and the majority of the patients may be dying before the diagnosis is made. There are no data on MPS2 from Kenya, and the prevalence and incidence are unknown. In this retrospective study, we present a case series of 6 Kenyan boys with MPS2 from a national referral hospital. They were part of 17 patients who had had their blood analyzed for metabolic diseases. All of them were symptomatic with varying degrees of central nervous system involvement. They had undetectable levels of iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S) enzyme, and three genetic mutations were detected in the IDS gene.

Adejoke Onaolapo ◽  
Olakunle Onaolapo

: The possible impact of viral infections on the development or pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders remains largely unknown. However, there have been reports associating the influenza virus pandemic and long-term infection with the Japanese encephalitis virus with the development of post-encephalitic Parkinsonism or von Economo encephalitis. In the last one year plus, there has been a worldwide pandemic arising from infection with the novel coronavirus or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 which causes a severe acute respiratory syndrome that has become associated with central nervous system symptoms or complications. Its possible central nervous system involvement is in line with emerging scientific evidence which shows that the human respiratory coronaviruses can enter the brain, infect neural cells, persist in the brain, and cause activation of myelin-reactive T cells. Currently, there is a dearth of scientific information on the acute or possible long-term impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2 on the development of dementias and/or neurodegenerative diseases. This is not unrelated to the fact that the virus is ‘new’, and its effects on humans are still being studied. This narrative review examines extant literature for the impact of corona virus infections on the brain; as it considers the possibility that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could increase the risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases or hasten their progression.

Grazina Kleinotiene ◽  
Austeja Ivaskeviciene ◽  
Anna Tylki-Szymanska

Background: Gaucher disease is one of the most common inherited lysosomal storage diseases caused by the deficiency of the enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase, leading to the accumulation of glucocerebroside. Depending on the clinical manifestations, two different forms of the disease are distinguished – the non-neuronopathic form (type 1) with a variety of presentations – from asymptomatic to symptomatic patients (characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia and osteopenia), and the neuronopathic form (known as types 2 and 3). Besides visceral, osseous, and hematopoietic organ lesions, neuronopathic forms are associated with central nervous system involvement (bulbar and pyramidal signs, horizontal saccadic eye movements, myoclonic epilepsy, progressive development delay). In type 2, the neurological symptoms appear earlier and are more severe, the survival time is shorter. In type 3, the neurological symptoms are milder and allow patients to live a fully productive life. Case presentation: This article includes a review of two cases of neuronopathic Gaucher disease: type 2 and severe type 3. Both patients presented symptoms during infancy and the manifestations were similar but varied in intensity and the dynamics of progress. Enzyme replacement therapy was started in both cases, which decreased visceral symptoms. Conclusions: Both described cases indicate the lack of knowledge and the tendency of doctors to disregard the possibility of Gaucher disease in their paediatrics patients.

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