system involvement
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2022 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. 131-146
Courtney Boen ◽  
Nick Graetz ◽  
Hannah Olson ◽  
Zohra Ansari-Thomas ◽  
Laurin Bixby ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Annika Saak ◽  
Pascal Benkert ◽  
Katja Akgün ◽  
Eline Willemse ◽  
Jens Kuhle ◽  

Purpose: Neurofilament light chain in serum (sNfL) has been suggested as a biomarker for the assessment of neuroaxonal damage. Since NfL are not expressed in muscle, elevated sNfL in patients with primary myopathies suggest additional nervous system involvement. To verify this hypothesis, we measured sNfL in a series of patients with myopathies.Methods: sNfL were determined in 62 patients with molecular proven primary myopathies in whom some nervous system involvement may be predicted: myotonic dystrophy type I and II (DM I, II) and mitochondrial disease. In addition, sNfL were measured in 8 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and in a disease control group caused by genetic defects exclusively expressed in muscle.Results: sNfL values were significantly elevated in the DM I, the DM II and the mitochondrial group, with FSHD patients showing the lowest sNfL elevations. sNfL levels in the disease control group were not different from the healthy controls. A significant correlation between repeat length and sNfL levels was found in the DM I patients, but not in the DM II patients. Mitochondrial patients with encephalopathy showed significantly higher sNfL concentrations compared to patients with only muscular symptoms.Conclusion: sNfL levels are elevated in myopathies with, based on the underlying molecular defect or clinical features, established nervous system involvement, i.e., myotonic dystrophies and mitochondrial disorders. sNfL were also raised in FSHD, where involvement of the nervous system is not usually clinically apparent. Thus, sNfL concentrations may serve as a biomarker for additional neuronal damage in primary myopathies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Leah A. Jacobs ◽  
Alex Fixler ◽  
Travis Labrum ◽  
Ashley Givens ◽  
Christina Newhill

Reducing criminal legal system involvement requires an understanding of the factors that promote repeat offending (i. e., recidivism), and the dissemination of relevant interventions to those most likely to benefit. A growing body of research has established common recidivism risk factors for persons with serious psychiatric disorder diagnoses. However, research to date has not examined the degree to which these risks apply to those with serious psychiatric disorders with and without co-occurring substance use disorders. To clarify what risk and need factors are greatest and for whom, this cross-sectional study drew from an original dataset containing data on 14 social and economic, psychological, and criminal risk areas for a cohort of people on probation (n = 4,809). Linear regression models indicated that, compared to those without a serious psychiatric disorder, people on probation with a serious psychiatric disorder are at greater risk in a minority of areas and those areas are mostly social and economic in nature. Meanwhile, those withco-occurring disorders are at relatively high risk across almost all areas. The results from this study suggest that justice involved persons with serious psychiatric disorders will benefit from interventions that increase social support and economic well-being and that interventions that broadly reduce risk among people with co-occurring serious psychiatric and substance use disorders will likely yield meaningful reductions in system involvement. Ultimately, understanding and intervening upon risk for recidivism among persons with serious psychiatric disorders requires differentiating between those with and without co-occurring substance use disorders.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (46) ◽  
pp. 7995-8009
Muhammad Umair Khan ◽  
Kamran Mushtaq ◽  
Deema Hussam Alsoub ◽  
Phool Iqbal ◽  
Fateen Ata ◽  

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