charging station
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yangqing Dan ◽  
Shuran Liu ◽  
Yanwei Zhu ◽  
Hailian Xie

Along with the rapid increase in the number of electric vehicles, more and more EV charging stations tend to have charging infrastructure, rooftop photovoltaic and energy storage all together for energy saving and emission reduction. Compared with individual design for each of the components in such kind of systems, an integrated design can result in higher efficiency, increased reliability, and lower total capital cost. This paper mainly focuses on the tertiary control strategy for dynamic state operation, such as PV generation fluctuation and random arrival/leave of EVs. The tertiary control aims to achieve stable operation under dynamic states, as well as to optimize the energy flow in the station to realize maximal operational benefits with constraints such as peak/valley price of electricity, state of discharge limitation of battery, etc. In this paper, four energy management functions in tertiary control level are proposed, and their performance is verified by simulations. By using prediction of PV power and EV load in the following 72 h, a novel tertiary control logic is proposed to optimize PVC and ESC power flow by changing their droop characteristics, so that minimum operational cost for the station can be achieved. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted for three parameters, including ES battery capacity, weather influence, and PV and EV load prediction error. The results from sensitivity analysis indicate that ES battery capacity and weather condition lead to a great impact on the operational cost of the integrated charging station, while a typical prediction error of PV power and EV load will not influence the optimization result significantly.

Systems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Arun Kumar Kalakanti ◽  
Shrisha Rao

Charging station (CS) planning for electric vehicles (EVs) for a region has become an important concern for urban planners and the public alike to improve the adoption of EVs. Two major problems comprising this research area are: (i) the EV charging station placement (EVCSP) problem, and (ii) the CS need estimation problem for a region. In this work, different explainable solutions based on machine learning (ML) and simulation were investigated by incorporating quantitative and qualitative metrics. The solutions were compared with traditional approaches using a real CS area of Austin and a greenfield area of Bengaluru. For EVCSP, a different class of clustering solutions, i.e., mean-based, density-based, spectrum- or eigenvalues-based, and Gaussian distribution were evaluated. Different perspectives, such as the urban planner perspective, i.e., the clustering efficiency, and the EV owner perspective, i.e., an acceptable distance to the nearest CS, were considered. For the CS need estimation, ML solutions based on quadratic regression and simulations were evaluated. Using our CS planning methods urban planners can make better CS placement decisions and can estimate CS needs for the present and the future.

2022 ◽  
pp. 133-155
Giulio Ferro ◽  
Riccardo Minciardi ◽  
Luca Parodi ◽  
Michela Robba

The relevance of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing along with the relative issues. The definition of smart policies for scheduling the EVs charging process represents one of the most important problems. A discrete-event approach is proposed for the optimal scheduling of EVs in microgrids. This choice is due to the necessity of limiting the number of the decision variables, which rapidly grows when a small-time discretization step is chosen. The considered optimization problem regards the charging of a series of vehicles in a microgrid characterized by renewable energy source, a storage element, the connection to the main grid, and a charging station. The objective function to be minimized results from the weighted sum of the cost for purchasing energy from the external grid, the weighted tardiness of the services provided, and a cost related to the occupancy of the socket. The approach is tested on a real case study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 960 (1) ◽  
pp. 012022
E Tudor ◽  
A Marinescu ◽  
R Prejbeanu ◽  
A Vintila ◽  
T Tudorache ◽  

Abstract Today, the technology of automatic battery charging based on Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) for the electric mass transit industry involving electric trains, buses and trams, is being used more and more. The modern solution described in this paper proposes an innovative technology for mixed charging of electric buses, either by wireless charging for 2-3 minutes in selected stations, or by plug-in charging at the end of the bus line, which results in only minimal energy storage on board - practically enough to get to the next charging station. The reduction of the weight of the battery packs determines the increase of the number of passengers transported, but also a reduction of the purchase price of the bus, without reducing the performances. The conversion can cost about half the price of new electric buses, depending on the condition of the vehicle and the extent of the work. This solution can be applied especially for the conversion of Diesel buses into electric buses which is not only sustainable, but also significantly better in terms of investment and operational costs, comparing with the purchase of new electric buses.

2022 ◽  
pp. 195-207
Furkan Ahmad ◽  
Essam A. Al-Ammar ◽  
Ibrahim Alsaidan

State-of-the-art research to solve the grid congestion due to EVs is focused on smart charging and using (centralized, de-centralized, vehicle-to-grid) stationery energy storage as a buffer between times of peak and off-peak demand. On the other hand, the charging of EVs introduces new challenges and opportunities. This can prove to be beneficial for the EV aggregator as well as to consumers, regarding the economy. Also, EV as distributed storage makes the grid more steady, secure, and resilient by regulating frequency and the spinning reserve as backup power. However, the charging time and range anxiety lead to peak challenges for the use of EVs. In this chapter battery swapping station (BSS) as solution to the EV charging station is discussed.

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