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Lean Sun ◽  
Min Qi ◽  
Xuefei Shao ◽  
Sansong Chen ◽  
Xinyun Fang ◽  

Abstract Objective This study aims to reduce the tissue damage during craniotomy with retrosigmoid approach. A modified sickle-shaped skin incision was developed, and a new burr-hole positioning method was proposed. Methods Five adult cadaveric heads (10 sides) were used in this study. The sickle-shaped skin incision was performed during craniotomy. The nerves, blood vessels, and muscles were observed and measured under a microscope. Additionally, 62 dry adult skull specimens (left sided, n = 35; right sided, n = 27) were used to measure the distance between the most commonly used locating point (asterion [Ast] point) and the posteroinferior point of the transverse sigmoid sinus junction (PSTS) (Ast-PSTS), as well as the distance between the new locating O point and the PSTS (O-PSTS). Then, the reliability of the new locating O point was validated on the same five adult cadaveric heads (10 sides) used for the sickle-shaped skin incision. Results The sickle-shaped skin incision reduced the damage to the occipital nerves, blood vessels, and muscles during the surgery via a retrosigmoid approach. The dispersion and variability of O-PSTS were smaller than those of Ast-PSTS. Conclusion The sickle-shaped skin incision of the retrosigmoid approach can reduce the tissue damage and can completely expose the structures in the cerebellopontine angle. The modified O point is a more reliable locating point for a burr-hole surgery than the Ast point.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 152
Peace Mabeta ◽  
Rodney Hull ◽  
Zodwa Dlamini

Angiogenesis is one of the hallmarks of cancer, and the establishment of new blood vessels is vital to allow for a tumour to grow beyond 1–2 mm in size. The angiogenic switch is the term given to the point where the number or activity of the pro-angiogenic factors exceeds that of the anti-angiogenic factors, resulting in the angiogenic process proceeding, giving rise to new blood vessels accompanied by increased tumour growth, metastasis, and potential drug resistance. Long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) have been found to play a role in the angiogenic switch by regulating gene expression, transcription, translation, and post translation modification. In this regard they play both anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic roles. The expression levels of the pro-angiogenic lncRNAs have been found to correlate with patient survival. These lncRNAs are also potential drug targets for the development of therapies that will inhibit or modify tumour angiogenesis. Here we review the roles of lncRNAs in regulating the angiogenic switch. We cover specific examples of both pro and anti-angiogenic lncRNAs and discuss their potential use as both prognostic biomarkers and targets for the development of future therapies.

2022 ◽  
Faihaa Eltigani ◽  
Sulafa Ahmed ◽  
Maged Yahya ◽  
Mawahib Ahmed

Abstract PurposeMicrowave hyperthermia is a treatment modality that uses microwaves to destroy cancer cells by increasing their temperature to 41- 45°C. This study aims to design, modeling, and simulation of a microwave sleeve antenna for hepatic (liver) hyperthermia. MethodThe designed antenna resonated at 2.45 GHz. The antenna was tested in six different 3D liver models: Model A: without a tumor and blood vessels; Model B: with a realistic tumor (2x3 cm) and without blood vessels; Model C: created by adding blood vessels to model B; Model D: created by adding a small tumor (1.5x1.5 cm) to model C and changed its location; Model E: same as model C with a different tumor size; Model F: model with a simple spherical tumor (1.5x1.5 cm).ResultsThe return loss of the antenna varied from -45 dB to -25 dB for the 6 models. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) was between 29 W/kg to 30W/kg in the tumors and below 24 W/Kg in the surrounding tissues. The tumors’ temperature elevated to 43- 45°C, while the temperature of the surrounding tissues was below 41°C.ConclusionsThe results showed the capability of the designed antenna to raise the temperature of hepatic tumors to the therapeutic ranges of hyperthermia.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 321
Alok K. Paul ◽  
Md K. Hossain ◽  
Tooba Mahboob ◽  
Veeranoot Nissapatorn ◽  
Polrat Wilairatana ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 virus causes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with other comorbidities such as diabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of diabetic nephropathy, which is attributed to hyperglycemia. COVID-19 produces severe complications in people with diabetes mellitus. This article explains how SARS-CoV-2 causes more significant kidney damage in diabetic patients. Importantly, COVID-19 and diabetes share inflammatory pathways of disease progression. SARS-CoV-2 binding with ACE-2 causes depletion of ACE-2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) from blood vessels, and subsequently, angiotensin-II interacts with angiotensin receptor-1 from vascular membranes that produce NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate) oxidase, oxidative stress, and constriction of blood vessels. Since diabetes and COVID-19 can create oxidative stress, we hypothesize that COVID-19 with comorbidities such as diabetes can synergistically increase oxidative stress leading to end-stage renal failure and death. Antioxidants may therefore prevent renal damage-induced death by inhibiting oxidative damage and thus can help protect people from COVID-19 related comorbidities. A few clinical trials indicated how effective the antioxidant therapy is against improving COVID-19 symptoms, based on a limited number of patients who experienced COVID-19. In this review, we tried to understand how effective antioxidants (such as vitamin D and flavonoids) can act as food supplements or therapeutics against COVID-19 with diabetes as comorbidity based on recently available clinical, preclinical, or in silico studies.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261498
Fengshan Gan ◽  
Liu Liu ◽  
Qingzhu Zhou ◽  
Wenli Huang ◽  
Xinwei Huang ◽  

Background A paracrine mechanism is thought to mediate the proangiogenic capacity of adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs). However, the precise mechanism by which ASCs promote the formation of blood vessels by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is unclear. Methods The EPCs-ASCs cocultures prepared in different ratios were subjected to tube formations assay to verify whether ASCs could directly participate in the tube genesis. The supernatant from cultured ASCs was used to stimulate EPCs to evaluate the effects on the angiogenic property of EPCs, as well as capacity for migration and invasion. A coculture model with transwell chamber were used to explore the regulation of angiogenesis markers expression in EPCs by ASCs. We then mixed ASCs with EPCs and transplanted them with adipose tissue into nude mice to evaluate the effects on angiogenesis in adipose tissue grafts. Results In the EPCs-ASCs cocultures, the tube formation was significantly decreased as the relative abundance of ASCs increased, while the ASCs was found to migrate and integrated into the agglomerates formed by EPCs. The supernatant from ASCs cultures promoted the migration and invasion of EPCs and the ability to form capillary-like structures. The expression of multiple angiogenesis markers in EPCs were significantly increased when cocultured with ASCs. In vivo, ASCs combined with EPC promoted vascularization in the fat transplant. Immunofluorescence straining of Edu and CD31 indicated that the Edu labeled EPC did not directly participate in the vascularization inside the fat tissue. Conclusions ADSC can participate in the tube formation of EPC although it cannot form canonical capillary structures. Meanwhile, Soluble factors secreted by ASCs promotes the angiogenic potential of EPCs. ASCs paracrine signaling appears to promote angiogenesis by increasing the migration and invasion of EPCs and simultaneously upregulating the expression of angiogenesis markers in EPCs. The results of in vivo experiments showed that ASCs combined with EPCs significantly promote the formation of blood vessels in the fat implant. Remarkably, EPCs may promote angiogenesis by paracrine regulation of endogenous endothelial cells (ECs) rather than direct participation in the formation of blood vessels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Min-seok Kim ◽  
Joon Hyuk Cha ◽  
Seonhwa Lee ◽  
Lihong Han ◽  
Wonhyoung Park ◽  

There have been few anatomical structure segmentation studies using deep learning. Numbers of training and ground truth images applied were small and the accuracies of which were low or inconsistent. For a surgical video anatomy analysis, various obstacles, including a variable fast-changing view, large deformations, occlusions, low illumination, and inadequate focus occur. In addition, it is difficult and costly to obtain a large and accurate dataset on operational video anatomical structures, including arteries. In this study, we investigated cerebral artery segmentation using an automatic ground-truth generation method. Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence intraoperative cerebral videoangiography was used to create a ground-truth dataset mainly for cerebral arteries and partly for cerebral blood vessels, including veins. Four different neural network models were trained using the dataset and compared. Before augmentation, 35,975 training images and 11,266 validation images were used. After augmentation, 260,499 training and 90,129 validation images were used. A Dice score of 79% for cerebral artery segmentation was achieved using the DeepLabv3+ model trained using an automatically generated dataset. Strict validation in different patient groups was conducted. Arteries were also discerned from the veins using the ICG videoangiography phase. We achieved fair accuracy, which demonstrated the appropriateness of the methodology. This study proved the feasibility of operating field view of the cerebral artery segmentation using deep learning, and the effectiveness of the automatic blood vessel ground truth generation method using ICG fluorescence videoangiography. Using this method, computer vision can discern blood vessels and arteries from veins in a neurosurgical microscope field of view. Thus, this technique is essential for neurosurgical field vessel anatomy-based navigation. In addition, surgical assistance, safety, and autonomous surgery neurorobotics that can detect or manipulate cerebral vessels would require computer vision to identify blood vessels and arteries.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Sonia Taïb ◽  
Noël Lamandé ◽  
Sabrina Martin ◽  
Fanny Coulpier ◽  
Piotr Topilko ◽  

Peripheral nerves are vascularized by a dense network of blood vessels to guarantee their complex function. Despite the crucial role of vascularization to ensure nerve homeostasis and regeneration, the mechanisms governing nerve invasion by blood vessels remain poorly understood. We found, in mice, that the sciatic nerve invasion by blood vessels begins around embryonic day 16 and continues until birth. Interestingly, intra-nervous blood vessel density significantly decreases during post-natal period, starting from P10. We show that, while the axon guidance molecule Netrin-1 promotes nerve invasion by blood vessels via the endothelial receptor UNC5B during embryogenesis, myelinated Schwann cells negatively control intra-nervous vascularization during postnatal period.

2022 ◽  
Stefania Marconi ◽  
Valeria Mauri ◽  
Erika Negrello ◽  
Luigi Pugliese ◽  
Andrea Pietrabissa ◽  

Blood vessels anastomosis is one of the most challenging and delicate tasks to learn in many surgical specialties, especially for vascular and abdominal surgeons. Such a critical skill implies a learning curve that goes beyond technical execution. The surgeon needs to gain proficiency in adapting gestures and the amount of force expressed according to the type of tissue he/she is dealing with. In this context, surgical simulation is gaining a pivotal role in the training of surgeons, but currently available simulators can provide only standard or simplified anatomies, without the chance of presenting specific pathological conditions and rare cases. 3D printing technology, allowing the manufacturing of extremely complex geometries, find a perfect application in the production of realistic replica of patient-specific anatomies. According to available technologies and materials, morphological aspects can be easily handled, while the reproduction of tissues mechanical properties still poses major problems, especially when dealing with soft tissues. The present work focuses on blood vessels, with the aim of identifying – by means of both qualitative and quantitative tests – materials combinations able to best mimic the behavior of the biological tissue during anastomoses, by means of J750™ Digital Anatomy™ technology and commercial photopolymers from Stratasys. Puncture tests and stitch traction tests are used to quantify the performance of the various formulations. Surgical simulations involving anastomoses are performed on selected clinical cases by surgeons to validate the results. A total of 37 experimental materials were tested and 2 formulations were identified as the most promising solutions to be used for anastomoses simulation. Clinical applicative tests, specifically selected to challenge the new materials, raised additional issues on the performance of the materials to be considered for future developments.

2022 ◽  
pp. 030098582110710
Marta Mainenti ◽  
Arnaud J. Van Wettere

Spontaneous migration of placental trophoblasts into maternal blood vessels and embolization to other organs (ie, lung, adrenal gland, spleen, and liver) occurs in women and certain animals with hemochorial placentation. Although considered incidental in most species, increased incidence and numbers of trophoblast emboli are reported in women with gestational diseases with arterial hypertension (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia). To the best of our knowledge, trophoblast emboli have not been reported in lagomorphs. This case report describes the identification of trophoblast emboli in the lung of a wild snowshoe hare ( Lepus americanus). Death of this hare was attributed to pulmonary hemorrhages and hemothorax, but a definitive cause for the hemorrhages was not determined. It is unclear whether trophoblast embolism normally occurs in this species and represents an incidental finding, or whether it possibly contributed to rupture of pulmonary or thoracic blood vessels leading to hemorrhage.

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