Vitamin D Deficiency
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Lucy N. W. Mungai ◽  
Zanuba Mohammed ◽  
Michuki Maina ◽  
Omar Anjumanara

Vitamin D is an important hormone that is known for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults leading to poor bone mineralisation and can also lead to serious dental complications in the same population. Recent studies have shown vitamin D to work as a hormone needed not only in bone and teeth but also in other body organs from intrauterine life up to old age. It has been demonstrated that Vitamin D has various effects on biological processes that deal with cell growth, differentiation, cell death, immune regulation, DNA stability, and neuronal growth. Despite being readily formed in the body through the intervention of the sun, patients are still found to have low vitamin D levels. We review studies done to show how vitamin D works.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Limin Yang ◽  
Miori Sato ◽  
Mayako Saito-Abe ◽  
Makoto Irahara ◽  
Minaho Nishizato ◽  

Abstract Background The study aim was to obtain epidemiological data on vitamin D levels for the pediatric population in Japan. We assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in 2-year-old Japanese children using data from a large ongoing birth cohort study. Methods Data for analysis was obtained from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) and a Sub-Cohort Study (SCS) of JECS. We evaluated the children’s serum 25(OH) D levels by 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles, and the rates of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. We also presented a weighted prevalence rate for vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among all children in JECS. Results After excluding children with missing 25(OH)D2 or 25(OH)D3 data, we analyzed 4655 remaining children, of whom 24.7% (95% CI, 23.5–26.0%) had vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/mL), and 51.3% (95% CI, 49.8–52.7%) were at risk of vitamin D insufficiency (20–30 ng/mL). The estimated prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among all children in JECS were 25.4% (95% CI, 24.1–26.7%) and 50.9% (95% CI, 49.4–52.4%). Vitamin D deficiency was found in 22.9% of boys and 26.5% of girls. Median serum 25(OH) D concentrations were lower among participants measured during winter and spring than among those measured in summer and autumn. The highest rate of vitamin D deficiency was observed in Hokkaido, the northernmost prefecture of Japan. Conclusion We analyzed data on serum 25(OH) D levels from a birth cohort study and found that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are very common among 2-year-old Japanese children. Sex, season, and latitude affect serum 25(OH) D concentrations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. S634-S635
I. Cioffi ◽  
O. Di Vincenzo ◽  
D. Morlino ◽  
L. Santarpia ◽  
C.M. Pagano ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Leila Kamalzadeh ◽  
Malihe Saghafi ◽  
Seyede Salehe Mortazavi ◽  
Atefeh Ghanbari Jolfaei

Abstract Background Amongst the contributing factors of depression, vitamin D deficiency has increasingly drawn attention in recent years. This paper seeks to examine the association between serum vitamin D level and depression in patients with obesity. Methods In this comparative observational study, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were compared between obese individuals with depression (n = 174) and those without depression considering the effect of potential confounders. Participants were selected from males and females aged 18 to 60 years old visiting the outpatient obesity clinic of Rasoul-e Akram hospital, Tehran, Iran. The diagnosis of depressive disorder was made based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Additional clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospital electronic records. Mann–Whitney U test (nonparametric), Student’s t-test (parametric), and Chi-squared test were used to analyze the differences between the two groups. To examine age and gender differences in the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and depression, stratified analyses were conducted by age and gender groups. Results The mean 25(OH) D levels were significantly different between depressed and non-depressed groups (20 ± 15 vs. 27 ± 13, P <  0.001). Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was detected in 78 and 67% of the depressed and non-depressed groups, respectively, which was significantly different (P = 0.03). The associations between depression and the serum 25(OH) D levels were observed regardless of gender and age. The overall average vitamin D levels were not significantly different between total males and females (22 ± 13 vs. 23 ± 14, P = 0.49). The average level of vitamin D was higher in the older age group (40–60 years) compared to younger participants (18–39 years) (26 ± 15 vs. 21 ± 13, P = 0.004). Conclusion The present study provides additional evidence for the hypothesis that low vitamin D serum concentration is associated with depression in obese adults, and highlights the need for further research to determine whether this association is causal.

Alireza Fatemi ◽  
Seyed Hossein Ardehali ◽  
Ghazaleh Eslamian ◽  
Morvarid Noormohammadi ◽  
Shirin Malek

Kaveh Tabrizian ◽  
Reyhane Shokouhinia ◽  
Fatemeh Davari Tanha ◽  
Marjan Ghaemi ◽  
Mahsa Ghajarzadeh ◽  

Objective: Uterine myoma is the most common benign tumor however with significant distress and reduced quality of life in affected women. Besides, vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for uterine myoma. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplements on the size of myoma in women with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Materials and methods: This clinical trial was conducted in a teaching hospital from 2019 to 2020. According to baseline vitamin D level, participants were assigned into two interventional equal groups (vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency) to receive either 1000 IU daily or 50000 IU weekly vitamin D for 12 weeks. The size and location of the uterine myoma were compared before and after the intervention. Results: Totally, 137 women with uterine myoma were enrolled. Based on baseline vitamin D level, 52 cases had vitamin D insufficiency and 85 cases had vitamin D deficiency. No significant difference was observed in age and BMI in both groups. The location of the subserosal and intramural myoma did not differ, otherwise, the percent of the submucosal myomas were increased significantly (p=0.020) after the intervention. In both groups decreased myoma size otherwise not significant was seen after the intervention (p=0.148 and p=0.664 respectively). Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation may not be effective in women with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the short term to reduce myoma size.

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