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Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Jan Maláska ◽  
Jan Stašek ◽  
František Duška ◽  
Martin Balík ◽  
Jan Máca ◽  

Abstract Background Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected millions of people worldwide. In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in need of oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, dexamethasone 6 mg per day is currently recommended. However, the dose of 6 mg of dexamethasone is currently being reappraised and may miss important therapeutic potential or may prevent potential deleterious effects of higher doses of corticosteroids. Methods REMED is a prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial testing the superiority of dexamethasone 20 mg (dexamethasone 20 mg on days 1–5, followed by dexamethasone 10 mg on days 6–10) vs 6 mg administered once daily intravenously for 10 days in adult patients with moderate or severe ARDS due to confirmed COVID-19. Three hundred participants will be enrolled and followed up for 360 days after randomization. Patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio into one of the two treatment arms. The following stratification factors will be applied: age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, CRP levels and trial centre. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days after randomisation. The secondary endpoints are mortality from any cause at 60 days after randomisation; dynamics of the inflammatory marker, change in WHO Clinical Progression Scale at day 14; and adverse events related to corticosteroids and independence at 90 days after randomisation assessed by the Barthel Index. The long-term outcomes of this study are to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days. The study will be conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs) of ten university hospitals in the Czech Republic. Discussion We aim to compare two different doses of dexamethasone in patients with moderate to severe ARDS undergoing mechanical ventilation regarding efficacy and safety. Trial registration EudraCT No. 2020-005887-70. NCT04663555. Registered on December 11, 2020

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261565
Helio Fayolle ◽  
Nina Jehanno ◽  
Valerie Lauwers-Cances ◽  
Marie-Pierre Castex ◽  
Daniel Orbach ◽  

Purpose Childhood RMS is a rare malignant disease in which evaluation of tumour spread at diagnosis is essential for therapeutic management. F-18 FDG-PET imaging is currently used for initial RMS disease staging. Materials and methods This multicentre retrospective study in six French university hospitals was designed to analyse the prognostic accuracy of MTV at diagnosis for patients with RMS between 1 January 2007 and 31 October 2017, for overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). MTV was defined as the sum of the primitive tumour and the largest metastasis, where relevant, with a 40% threshold of the primary tumour SUVmax. Additional aims were to define the prognostic value of SUVmax, SUVpeak, and bone lysis at diagnosis. Results Participants were 101 patients with a median age of 7.4 years (IQR [4.0-12.5], 62 boys), with localized disease (35 cases), regional nodal spread (43 cases), or distant metastases (23). 44 patients had alveolar subtypes. In a univariate analysis, a MTV greater than 200 cm3 was associated with OS (HR = 3.47 [1.79;6.74], p<0.001) and PFS (HR = 3.03 [1.51;6.07], p = 0.002). SUVmax, SUVpeak, and bone lysis also influenced OS (respectively p = 0.005, p = 0.004 and p = 0.007) and PFS (p = 0.029, p = 0.019 and p = 0.015). In a multivariate analysis, a MTV greater than 200 cm3 was associated with OS (HR = 2.642 [1.272;5.486], p = 0.009) and PFS (HR = 2.707 [1.322;5.547], p = 0.006) after adjustment for confounding factors, including SUVmax, SUVpeak, and bone lysis. Conclusion A metabolic tumor volume greater than 200 cm3, SUVmax, SUVpeak, and bone lysis in the pre-treatment assessment were unfavourable for outcome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Lobna F. El Toony ◽  
Andrew N. Ramzy ◽  
Mohamed A. A. Abozaid

Abstract Background The major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes is cardiovascular disease, which is exacerbated by the presence of hypertension. Therefore, proper control of BP in diabetic hypertensive patients is essential. Few studies have specifically investigated the prognostic significance of central BP in Egyptian populations with diabetes and hypertension and its relation with cardiovascular outcome. This study aims to evaluate relation between central BP and diabetic composite cardiovascular complications. Results Diabetic patients with CVD were significantly older (p value < 0.01), obese (p value < 0.01) with long duration of diabetes (p value < 0.001) and had significantly higher peripheral and central systolic and diastolic BP and higher AIx@75(p values < 0.01) than those without CVD. Regarding the metabolic parameters, they had significantly higher fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and higher blood cholesterol levels (p values < 0.001), higher LDL (p value < 0.01), triglycerides levels (p value = 0.014), and microalbuminuria (p value = 0.028). Logistic regression analysis found increased BMI, central systolic BP, and AIx@75 were independent predictors of composite CVD (p values < 0.05). Conclusions There is a pattern of favorability towards central rather than peripheral BP indices to predict the occurrence of CVD in diabetic patients.

Martin Lacher ◽  
Winfried Barthlen ◽  
Felicitas Eckoldt ◽  
Guido Fitze ◽  
Jörg Fuchs ◽  

Abstract Introduction Adequate patient volume is essential for the maintenance of quality, meaningful research, and training of the next generation of pediatric surgeons. The role of university hospitals is to fulfill these tasks at the highest possible level. Due to decentralization of pediatric surgical care during the last decades, there is a trend toward reduction of operative caseloads. The aim of this study was to assess the operative volume of the most relevant congenital malformations at German academic pediatric surgical institutions over the past years. Methods Nineteen chairpersons representing university-chairs in pediatric surgery in Germany submitted data on 10 index procedures regarding congenital malformations or neonatal abdominal emergencies over a 3-year period (2015 through 2017). All institutions were categorized according to the total number of respective cases into “high,” “medium,” and “low” volume centers by terciles. Some operative numbers were verified using data from health insurance companies, when available. Finally, the ratio of cumulative case load versus prevalence of the particular malformation was calculated for the study period. Results From 2015 through 2017, a total 2,162 newborns underwent surgery for congenital malformations and neonatal abdominal emergencies at German academic medical centers, representing 51% of all expected newborn cases nationwide. The median of cases per center within the study period was 101 (range 18–258). Four institutions (21%) were classified as “high volume” centers, four (21%) as “medium volume” centers, and 11 (58%) as “low volume” centers. The proportion of patients operated on in high-volume centers varied per disease category: esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula: 40%, duodenal atresia: 40%, small and large bowel atresia: 39%, anorectal malformations: 40%, congenital diaphragmatic hernia: 56%, gastroschisis: 39%, omphalocele: 41%, Hirschsprung disease: 45%, posterior urethral valves: 39%, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)/focal intestinal perforation (FIP)/gastric perforation (GP): 45%. Conclusion This study provides a national benchmark for neonatal surgery performed in German university hospitals. The rarity of these cases highlights the difficulties for individual pediatric surgeons to gain adequate clinical and surgical experience and research capabilities. Therefore, a discussion on the centralization of care for these rare entities is necessary.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 57-57
Sam Foster

Sam Foster, Chief Nurse, Oxford University Hospitals, considers the lessons from research into the trainee nurse associate role and the implications for workforce planning

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 378
Alejandra Bernardini ◽  
Marta Dueñas ◽  
María Cruz Martín-Soberon ◽  
Carolina Rubio ◽  
Cristian Suarez-Cabrera ◽  

Background and Aims: Metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) remains an incurable disease with limited treatment options after platinum-based chemotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Vinflunine has shown a modest increase in overall survival and remains a therapeutic option for chemo- and immunotherapy refractory tumours. However, biomarkers that could identify responding patients to vinflunine and possible alternative therapies after failure to treatment are still missing. In this study, we aimed to identify potential genomic biomarkers of vinflunine response in mUC patient samples and potential management alternatives. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of mUC patients (n = 23) from three university hospitals in Spain were used for genomic targeted-sequencing and transcriptome (using the Immune Profile panel by NanoString) analyses. Patients who received vinflunine after platinum-based chemotherapy failure were classified in non-responders (NR: progressive disease ≤ 3 months; n= 11) or responders (R: response ≥ 6 months; n = 12). Results: Genomic characterization revealed that the most common alteration, TP53 mutations, had comparable frequency in R (6/12; 50%) and NR (4/11; 36%). Non-synonymous mutations in KTM2C (4/12; 33.3%), PIK3CA (3/12; 25%) and ARID2 (3/12; 25%) were predominantly associated with response. No significant difference was observed in tumour mutational burden (TMB) between R and NR patients. The NR tumours showed increased expression of diverse immune-related genes and pathways, including various interferon gamma-related genes. We also identified increased MAGEA4 expression as a potential biomarker of non-responding tumours to vinflunine treatment. Conclusions: Our data may help to identify potential genomic biomarkers of response to vinflunine. Moreover, tumours refractory to vinflunine showed immune signatures potentially associated with response to ICB. Extensive validation studies, including longitudinal series, are needed to corroborate these findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Edward John Maile ◽  
Mahima Mitra ◽  
Pavel Ovseiko ◽  
Sue Dopson

Purpose Hospital mergers are common in the United Kingdom and internationally. However, mergers rarely achieve their intended benefits and are often damaging. This study builds on existing literature by presenting a case study evaluating a merger of two hospitals in Oxford, United Kingdom with three distinct characteristics: merger between two university hospitals, merger between a generalist and specialist hospital and merger between two hospitals of differing size. In doing so, the study draws practical lessons for other healthcare organisations.Design/methodology/approach Mixed-methods single-case evaluation. Qualitative data from 19 individual interviews and three focus groups were analysed thematically, using constant comparison to synthesise and interpret findings. Qualitative data were triangulated with quantitative clinical and financial data. To maximise research value, the study was co-created with practitioners.Findings The merger was a relative success with mixed improvement in clinical performance and strong improvement in financial and organisational performance. The merged organisation received an improved inspection rating, became debt-free and achieved Foundation Trust status. The study draws six lessons relating to the contingencies that can make mergers a success: (1) Develop a strong clinical rationale, (2) Communicate the change strategy widely and early, (3) Increase engagement and collaboration at all levels, (4) Be transparent and realistic about the costs and benefits, (5) Be sensitive to the feelings of the other organisation and (6) Integrate different organizational cultures effectively.Originality/value This case study provides empirical evidence on the outcome of merger in a university hospital setting. Despite the relatively positive outcome, there is no strong evidence that the benefits could not have been achieved without merger. Given that mergers remain prevalent worldwide, the practical lessons might be useful for other healthcare organisations considering merger.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan ◽  
Heydar Ali Balou ◽  
Somayeh Pourabdollahy ◽  
Azin Vakilpour ◽  
Arsalan Salari ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (1) ◽  
Afaf Hamdy Khalil ◽  
Ahmed Mohamed Zayed ◽  
Ayman Amer ◽  
Hemmat Baz

Abstract Background The current study aimed at constructing an Arabic-language questionnaire to investigate the association of the severity of ADHD with children’s degree of exposure to multimedia per day and the age of starting the engagement, and the effect of different multimedia programs on the attention, language, and socio-behavioral aspects in children presented with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study was conducted on 69 children who attended the Phoniatric Unit at Mansoura University Hospitals and were divided into 2 groups: 30 normal typically developing children as a control group and 39 children with ADHD as the study group. The study group was subdivided into 3 subgroups according to ADHD severity; each subgroup consisted of 13 children. Results The time at which the child started to be exposed to multimedia showed no significant differences among ADHD subgroups as all of the cases started before the age of 2 years. Kids with mild ADHD had a significant increase in watching children’s programs, cartoons, rhymes, and commercials than the other two higher grades (moderate and severe) of ADHD. Conclusion The constructed Arabic questionnaire proved to be reliable and a valid tool that examined the relationship between multimedia usage and ADHD.

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