skills learning
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2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2106028118
Raphael Köster ◽  
Dylan Hadfield-Menell ◽  
Richard Everett ◽  
Laura Weidinger ◽  
Gillian K. Hadfield ◽  

How do societies learn and maintain social norms? Here we use multiagent reinforcement learning to investigate the learning dynamics of enforcement and compliance behaviors. Artificial agents populate a foraging environment and need to learn to avoid a poisonous berry. Agents learn to avoid eating poisonous berries better when doing so is taboo, meaning the behavior is punished by other agents. The taboo helps overcome a credit assignment problem in discovering delayed health effects. Critically, introducing an additional taboo, which results in punishment for eating a harmless berry, further improves overall returns. This “silly rule” counterintuitively has a positive effect because it gives agents more practice in learning rule enforcement. By probing what individual agents have learned, we demonstrate that normative behavior relies on a sequence of learned skills. Learning rule compliance builds upon prior learning of rule enforcement by other agents. Our results highlight the benefit of employing a multiagent reinforcement learning computational model focused on learning to implement complex actions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Oana R. Groene ◽  
Maren Ehrhardt ◽  
Corinna Bergelt

Abstract Objective While the development of communication competencies in medical schools plays a pivotal role in the curriculum, studies show that students’ communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may vary based on gender and ethnicity. The goal of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic factors that influence medical students’ communication abilities and, more specifically, to what extent their attitude toward communication skills learning and patient orientation associate with communication abilities. Our population included medical students admitted in 2017. Used tools included a communication score, the patient-provider orientation and communication skills attitudes scales. Results Three hundred and sixty-five students participated in the study (56.4% female, 85.2% German native speakers, mean age 24.2 ± 3.5 years). Female and German native speaking students had a better communication skills OSCE performance, were more patient-oriented and had more positive attitudes toward communication skills learning than male and non-native speaking students. There was a significant association between gender, native tongue, attitudes towards communication skills learning and communication skills OSCE performance. In conclusion, to support medical students to improve their communication proficiency and attitudes towards the importance of clear communication and patient-oriented care, medical educators should consider teaching and assessment strategies that address socio-cultural aspects of communication.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Daniel Ardian Soeselo ◽  
Alex Kusanto ◽  
Nurliati Sari Handini ◽  
Jonny Setiawan ◽  
Irene Stephanie ◽  

Pharmacy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Ricarda Micallef ◽  
Reem Kayyali

Professional development activity is needed to ensure practitioners are up to date and providing optimal patient care. This includes, but is not restricted to, mandatory continuing professional development (CPD) or continuing education (CE) requirements, which differ by professions globally and within countries. This study aimed to investigate perceptions, participation, and individual practice for healthcare professionals in Great Britain (GB) and pharmacists globally to identify similarities and differences after the introduction of revalidation for pharmacists in GB. Qualitative data was received through interviews, which was analysed using content analysis. In total, 24 interviews were completed with pharmacists registered globally, and healthcare professionals registered in GB. A culture of CPD was seen for healthcare professionals in GB and globally for pharmacists; there was no consistent model. Face-to-face activity was common, with an increase in online provision, especially where large geographies were seen. Most learning was completed in the professional’s own time. Multiple providers were seen, with the evaluation of events using questionnaires being commonplace. Different formats of learning were useful for different topics, with skills learning being better when face-to-face. Although varied requirements were in place, regulation should support patient-based practice outcomes. This study showed that commitment to learning was similar in different professions in GB and by pharmacists globally, with similar benefits and challenges.

2022 ◽  
Sukma Sukma ◽  
Asriani Abbas ◽  
Nurhayati Nurhayati ◽  
Kaharuddin Kaharuddin

2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Jimena Hernández-Fernández

Objective. This study aims to analyze how the new upper secondary school curriculum in Mexico captures 21st-century skills and teachers’ perceptions of success. Method. The design of the study complies a comparison analysis between the Mexican upper secondary school curriculum and a 21st-century skills framework. Additionally, qualitative data on teachers’ perceptions of success is collected through eight focus groups with 72 participants in 4 States of Mexico. Results. The findings show that the curriculum is short in strategies for the development of 21st-century skills. Moreover, although teachers welcome them, they perceive a lack of support and doubt about students’ learning capabilities. Conclusions. Although Mexico has progressed in providing a 21st-century skills learning environment through the new curriculum, the educational system remains with the opportunity to offer a more suitable and adequate framework as well as support and training for teachers.

2022 ◽  
pp. 20-49
Klaas Stek

Industrial firms increasingly concentrate on their core competences and outsource non-core activities, affecting the personal (soft) skills requirements of purchasing and supply chain management (PSM) personnel in their boundary-spanning roles. In parallel, machines take over processes but cannot replicate humans' soft skills such as creativity and strategic thinking. The literature shows that learning objectives in PSM courses in higher education are evaluated for not covering soft skills. Moreover, there is evidence that soft skills development is challenging. It is questionable which soft skills can be developed and which didactics are applicable. This study presents an educational soft skills experiment with IEM graduates, and it provides evidence that soft skills learning can effectively be introduced in existing courses. The graduates self-rated their competence levels of 36 soft skills before and after the course that provided soft skills workshops and a case study. In the first survey, “strategic thinking” ranked low and could be improved the most in the second survey.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 172-182
Piotr Przymuszala ◽  
Magdalena Cerbin-Koczorowska ◽  
Patrycja Marciniak-Stepak ◽  
Lidia Szlanga ◽  
Lucja Zielinska-Tomczak ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 45-60
Alifia Suryatin Ramadani ◽  
Zainul Arifin Imam Supardi ◽  
Tukiran ◽  
Eko Hariyono

The 2013 curriculum aims to form students who are ready to face the 21st century so that the 2013 curriculum is not only taught about aspects of knowledge but also aspects of skills. Thinking skills are the skills used in the 2013 curriculum, where one of the thinking skills students need is expertise in analytical thinking. These skills are necessary for science learning. Analytical thinking skills can be improved if the teacher trains them correctly, both from the learning model and learning strategies. This study examines learning models and learning tools that can improve analytical thinking skills. Learning based on inquiry learning is expected to improve students' analytical thinking skills. The findings of this study, it is known that inquiry-based models and tools can improve analytical thinking skills because they start from a problem. The problems given are then discussed with the group to find information that fits the situation and find ways to solve the problem nicely by conducting experiments or observations, then summing up the results obtained and communicating them well. Analytical thinking skills are closely related to problem-solving. So with analytical thinking skills, students will quickly identify and solve a problem.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Khalid Bashir ◽  
Shahzad Anjum ◽  
Mohamed Dewji ◽  
Zeenat Khuda Bakhsh ◽  
Hamza Said Wali ◽  

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