As big data becomes ubiquitous across domains, and more and more stakeholders aspire to make the most of their data, demand for machine learning tools has spurred researchers to explore the possibilities of automated machine learning (AutoML). AutoML tools aim to make machine learning accessible for non-machine learning experts (domain experts), to improve the efficiency of machine learning, and to accelerate machine learning research. But although automation and efficiency are among AutoML’s main selling points, the process still requires human involvement at a number of vital steps, including understanding the attributes of domain-specific data, defining prediction problems, creating a suitable training dataset, and selecting a promising machine learning technique. These steps often require a prolonged back-and-forth that makes this process inefficient for domain experts and data scientists alike and keeps so-called AutoML systems from being truly automatic. In this review article, we introduce a new classification system for AutoML systems, using a seven-tiered schematic to distinguish these systems based on their level of autonomy. We begin by describing what an end-to-end machine learning pipeline actually looks like, and which subtasks of the machine learning pipeline have been automated so far. We highlight those subtasks that are still done manually—generally by a data scientist—and explain how this limits domain experts’ access to machine learning. Next, we introduce our novel level-based taxonomy for AutoML systems and define each level according to the scope of automation support provided. Finally, we lay out a roadmap for the future, pinpointing the research required to further automate the end-to-end machine learning pipeline and discussing important challenges that stand in the way of this ambitious goal.
Community science image libraries offer a massive, but largely untapped, source of observational data for phenological research. The iNaturalist platform offers a particularly rich archive, containing more than 49 million verifiable, georeferenced, open access images, encompassing seven continents and over 278,000 species. A critical limitation preventing scientists from taking full advantage of this rich data source is labor. Each image must be manually inspected and categorized by phenophase, which is both time-intensive and costly. Consequently, researchers may only be able to use a subset of the total number of images available in the database. While iNaturalist has the potential to yield enough data for high-resolution and spatially extensive studies, it requires more efficient tools for phenological data extraction. A promising solution is automation of the image annotation process using deep learning. Recent innovations in deep learning have made these open-source tools accessible to a general research audience. However, it is unknown whether deep learning tools can accurately and efficiently annotate phenophases in community science images. Here, we train a convolutional neural network (CNN) to annotate images of Alliaria petiolata into distinct phenophases from iNaturalist and compare the performance of the model with non-expert human annotators. We demonstrate that researchers can successfully employ deep learning techniques to extract phenological information from community science images. A CNN classified two-stage phenology (flowering and non-flowering) with 95.9% accuracy and classified four-stage phenology (vegetative, budding, flowering, and fruiting) with 86.4% accuracy. The overall accuracy of the CNN did not differ from humans (p = 0.383), although performance varied across phenophases. We found that a primary challenge of using deep learning for image annotation was not related to the model itself, but instead in the quality of the community science images. Up to 4% of A. petiolata images in iNaturalist were taken from an improper distance, were physically manipulated, or were digitally altered, which limited both human and machine annotators in accurately classifying phenology. Thus, we provide a list of photography guidelines that could be included in community science platforms to inform community scientists in the best practices for creating images that facilitate phenological analysis.
AbstractThe education system evolves and transforms towards interactive and immersive learning tools in this digital age. Augmented reality has also evolved as a ubiquitous, robust, and effective technology for providing innovative educational tools. In engineering education, many abstract concepts require technological intervention for conceptual understanding and better instructional content. While learning through the immersive tools, system usability has great importance in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. Effectiveness refers to users' accuracy and completeness in achieving defined goals; efficiency relates to expended resources about the precision and completeness with which users achieve their objectives; satisfaction deals with a positive attitude towards using the product. If the system fails to provide good usability, it may cause adverse effects such as increasing stress, lacking necessary features, increasing the users' cognitive load, and negatively impacting the student's motivation. In this study, two mobile augmented reality (MAR) applications were developed as an instructional tool to teach the students about Karnaugh maps in the digital electronics course. The first application is a Keypad-based MAR application that uses a keypad matrix for user interaction and the second application is a Marker-based MAR application that uses multiple markers to solve K-Map for producing an optimum solution of the given problem. An experimental study was conducted to determine the student's opinion of the developed MAR applications. The study was designed to determine the system usability of the two MAR applications using the System Usability Score (SUS) and Handheld Augmented Reality Usability Score (HARUS) models. 90 engineering students participated in the study, and they were randomly divided into two different groups: keypad-based group and Marker-based group. The keypad-based group included 47 students who had hands-on experience with a keypad-based MAR application, whereas the marker-based group included 43 students who had hands-on experience with multiple marker-based MAR applications. The experimental outcomes indicated that the keypad-based MAR application has better SUS and HARUS scores than the marker-based MAR application which suggests that the keypad-based MAR application has provided better user interaction.
Objective: Medical podcasts are becoming increasingly available; however, it is unclear how these new resources are being used by trainees or whether they influence clinical practice. This study explores the preferences and experiences of otolaryngology residents with otolaryngology-specific podcasts, and the impact of these podcasts on resident education and clinical practice. Methods: An 18-question survey was distributed anonymously to a representative junior (up to post-graduate year 3) and senior (post-graduate year 4 or greater) otolaryngology residents at most programs across the US. Along with demographic information, the survey was designed to explore the preferences of educational materials, podcast listening habits and motivations, and influence of podcasts on medical practice. Descriptive statistics and student t-tests were used to analyze the results. Results: The survey was distributed to 198 current otolaryngology residents representing 94% of eligible residency programs and was completed by 73 residents (37% response rate). Nearly 3-quarters of respondents reported previous use of otolaryngology podcasts, among which 83% listen at least monthly. Over half of residents changed their overall clinical (53%) and consult (51%) practice based on podcast use. Residents rank-ordered listening to podcasts last among traditional options for asynchronous learning, including reading textbooks and watching online videos. Conclusions: While other asynchronous learning tools remain popular, most residents responding to this survey use podcasts and report that podcasts influence their clinical practice. This study reveals how podcasts are currently used as a supplement to formal otolaryngology education. Results from the survey may inform how medical podcasts could be implemented into resident education in the future.
Lifelong learning approaches that include digital, transversal, and practical skills (i.e., critical thinking, communication, collaboration, information literacy, analytical, metacognitive, reflection, and other research skills) are required in order to be equitable and inclusive and stimulate personal development. Realtime interaction between teachers and students and the ability for students to choose courses from curricula are guaranteed by decentralized online learning. Moreover, through blockchain, it is possible to acquire skills regarding the structure and content while also implementing learning tools. Additionally, documentation validation should be equally crucial to speeding up the process and reducing costs and paperwork. Finally, blockchains are open and inclusive processes that include people and cultures from all walks of life. Learning in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) is facilitated by new technologies, connecting blockchain to sustainability, which helps understand the relationship between technologies and sustainability. Besides serving as a secure transaction system, blockchain technology can help decentralize, provide security and integrity, and offer anonymity and encryption, therefore, promoting a transaction rate increase. This study investigates an alternative in which HEI include a blockchain network to provide the best sustainable education system. Students’ opinions were analyzed, and they considered that blockchain technology had a very positive influence on learning performance.
Cancer risk algorithms were introduced to clinical practice in the last decade, but they remain underused. We investigated whether General Practitioners (GPs) change their referral decisions in response to an unnamed algorithm, if decisions improve, and if changing decisions depends on having information about the algorithm and on whether GPs overestimated or underestimated risk.
157 UK GPs were presented with 20 vignettes describing patients with possible colorectal cancer symptoms. GPs gave their risk estimates and inclination to refer. They then saw the risk score of an unnamed algorithm and could update their responses. Half of the sample was given information about the algorithm’s derivation, validation, and accuracy. At the end, we measured their algorithm disposition. We analysed the data using multilevel regressions with random intercepts by GP and vignette.
We find that, after receiving the algorithm’s estimate, GPs’ inclination to refer changes 26% of the time and their decisions switch entirely 3% of the time. Decisions become more consistent with the NICE 3% referral threshold (OR 1.45 [1.27, 1.65], p < .001). The algorithm’s impact is greatest when GPs have underestimated risk. Information about the algorithm does not have a discernible effect on decisions but it results in a more positive GP disposition towards the algorithm. GPs’ risk estimates become better calibrated over time, i.e., move closer to the algorithm.
Cancer risk algorithms have the potential to improve cancer referral decisions. Their use as learning tools to improve risk estimates is promising and should be further investigated.
The use of data mining and machine learning tools is becoming increasingly common. Their usefulness is mainly noticeable in the case of large datasets, when information to be found or new relationships are extracted from information noise. The development of these tools means that datasets with much fewer records are being explored, usually associated with specific phenomena. This specificity most often causes the impossibility of increasing the number of cases, and that can facilitate the search for dependences in the phenomena under study. The paper discusses the features of applying the selected tools to a small set of data. Attempts have been made to present methods of data preparation, methods for calculating the performance of tools, taking into account the specifics of databases with a small number of records. The techniques selected by the author are proposed, which helped to break the deadlock in calculations, i.e., to get results much worse than expected. The need to apply methods to improve the accuracy of forecasts and the accuracy of classification was caused by a small amount of analysed data. This paper is not a review of popular methods of machine learning and data mining; nevertheless, the collected and presented material will help the reader to shorten the path to obtaining satisfactory results when using the described computational methods
Based on temporary observations at SMA Negeri 2 Sentajo Raya, Kuantan Singingi Regency, the phenomena found include; There are some teachers who have not completed their learning tools, such as the Learning Implementation Plan (RPP) and so on. The presence of some teachers who do not carry out their duties in accordance with the provisions that have been determined, it can be seen that there are teachers who leave school during teaching hours. Lack of teacher initiative in developing models or learning methods that are more attractive to children. Lack of teacher creativity in providing varied media and learning resources, including using online learning applications. This type of research is School Action Research (PTS) located at SMA Negeri 2 Sentajo Raya, Kuantan Singingi Regency, which is aimed at teachers. The main reason is from the results of observations and information from teachers, that teacher performance during the pandemic is classified as lacking. The place of research is SMA Negeri 2 Sentajo Raya, Kuantan Singingi Regency. The time of this research was carried out in March 2021. The number of samples specified in this study was 26 teachers. From the description of data processing and discussion, it was concluded that the teacher's performance was obtained in the first cycle by 60% in the good category and in the second cycle increased to 91% in the good category. This means that supervision activities can improve teacher performance at SMA Negeri 2 Sentajo Raya, Kuantan Singingi Regency is said to be successful.
We present the discovery of CWISE J052306.42−015355.4, which was found as a faint, significant proper-motion object (0.″52 ± 0.″08 yr−1) using machine-learning tools on the unWISE re-processing of time series images from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Using the CatWISE2020 W1 and W2 magnitudes along with a J-band detection from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, the location of CWISE J052306.42−015355.4 on the W1 − W2 versus J − W2 diagram best matches that of other known, or suspected, extreme T subdwarfs. As there is currently very little knowledge concerning extreme T subdwarfs we estimate a rough distance of ≤68 pc, which results in a tangential velocity of ≤167 km s−1, both of which are tentative. A measured parallax is greatly needed to test these values. We also estimate a metallicity of −1.5 < [M/H] < −0.5 using theoretical predictions.