retrospective data
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 573-584
Fábio da Costa Málaga ◽  
Helloa Alaide Siqueira ◽  
Lucio Pereira Rauber ◽  
Mariana Groke Marques ◽  

In pig farming, measurements of production parameters play a fundamental role in the success of the activity. Minimal differences in fertility between breeders can lead to less reproductive efficiency and, less productivity. However, assessing the fertility of each male and the early identification of subfertile males is a difficult task to be performed. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of in vitro and in vivo parameters in the identification of subfertile males of the Landrace breed, aiming to collaborate with genetic improvement programs, routine optimization in the Genetic Diffusion Units (GDUs) and the results of performance. In experiment 1, an approach to identify males with subfertility was evaluated based on retrospective data. For this, the results (averages of birth rates, number of total births and average percentages of female and male piglets per litter) were evaluated for a total of 996 matings and 847 parturitions. The inseminations came from ejaculates of 32 males, who had at least 19 females inseminated with homospermic doses in the concentration of 2.5 x 109 total sperm from the same male. As for the birth rate (BR), an average of 85.47% ± 6.05 was observed with a group of median males, seven males that stood out and one individual (M32) with a performance of 58.06% ± 9.0. For the total number of piglets born (PB) the average was 13.41 ± 0.56, with three males with better performance and one (M32) with very poor performance (8.62 ± 0.59). In experiment 2, it was verified whether evaluations of inseminating doses (ID) of semen in vitro (motility and sperm morphology) after 96 hours of storage had correlations with fertility in vivo, which can be used to identify subfertile males. The evaluations were performed on 30 ejaculates regarding the means of BR and PB, considering only those who had at least 7 females inseminated. There were no correlations between the motility assessments and semen morphological changes and the reproductive parameters evaluated. The results obtained in vivo, referring to BR and PB, demonstrated that it was possible to identify differences between males, the individual (M32) had the worst results for the percentages of BR and PB. It is concluded that there are males of high and low fertility and that only the in vitro analyzes carried out in this study are not enough to categorize them, however, the evaluation of retrospective data was efficient for this purpose.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 61-72
Juliana Sant'Ana Falcão Leite ◽  
Rafael Sepulveda Fonsêca Trevisan Passos ◽  
Thiago da Matta Pires Cruz ◽  
Brenno Guimarães Barreto ◽  

Slaughter condemnations are important sources of information on cattle health and handling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main causes of condemnation of cattle slaughter under the state sanitary inspection by the Diretoria de Inspeção de Produtos de Origem Agropecuária (DIPA) of Agência de Defesa Agropecuária da Bahia (ADAB), in Bahia, Brazil. A retrospective data of all cattle slaughtered from 2012 to 2019 was obtained from DIPA – ADAB. During this period, 4,635,615 cattle were slaughtered and 1,452,472 (31.33%) condemnations were registered to have occurred at varying levels in all regions of the state. The more condemned organs were kidneys and lungs; and the main causes of condemnation were nephritis (11.79%), congestion (11.20%), emphysema (10.72%), blood aspiration (8.36%), renal cysts (5.75%), and abscesses (5.71%). However, other condemnation causes such as cysticercosis, fasciolosis, and tuberculosis were observed at lower rates. Results showed that the main causes of condemnation of cattle slaughter were not related to zoonotic diseases instead were more involved in partial condemnation of organs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Yuqian Zhao ◽  
Yucong Li ◽  
Lu Xing ◽  
Haike Lei ◽  
Duke Chen ◽  

Objective. We aimed to evaluate the performance of artificial intelligence (AI) system in detecting high-grade precancerous lesions. Methods. A retrospective and diagnostic study was conducted in Chongqing Cancer Hospital. Anonymized medical records with cytology, HPV testing, colposcopy findings with images, and the histopathological results were selected. The sensitivity, specificity, and areas under the curve (AUC) in detecting CIN2+ and CIN3+ were evaluated for the AI system, the AI-assisted colposcopy, and the human colposcopists, respectively. Results. Anonymized medical records from 346 women were obtained. The images captured under colposcopy of 194 women were found positive by the AI system; 245 women were found positive either by human colposcopists or the AI system. In detecting CIN2+, the AI-assisted colposcopy significantly increased the sensitivity (96.6% vs. 88.8%, p = 0.016 ). The specificity was significantly lower for AI-assisted colposcopy (38.1%), compared with human colposcopists (59.5%, p < 0.001 ) or the AI system (57.6%, p < 0.001 ). The AUCs for the human colposcopists, AI system, and AI-assisted colposcopy were 0.741, 0.765, and 0.674, respectively. In detecting CIN3+, the sensitivities of the AI system and AI-assisted colposcopy were not significantly higher than human colposcopists (97.5% vs. 92.6%, p = 0.13 ). The specificity was significantly lower for AI-assisted colposcopy (37.4%) compared with human colposcopists (59.2%, p < 0.001 ) or compared with the AI system (56.6%, p < 0.001 ). The AUCs for the human colposcopists, AI system, and AI-assisted colposcopy were 0.759, 0.674, and 0.771, respectively. Conclusions. The AI system provided equally matched sensitivity to human colposcopists in detecting CIN2+ and CIN3+. The AI-assisted colposcopy significantly improved the sensitivity in detecting CIN2+.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (01) ◽  
pp. E56-E61
Prasit Mahawongkajit ◽  
Ajjana Techagumpuch ◽  
Kharikarn Auksornchat

Abstract Background and study aims The current practice of endoscopists is undergoing a dramatic revolution due to emerging endoscopy practices. Increasing use of gastrointestinal endoscopy has led to hospital budgets setting aside funds specifically related to damage to endoscopic instruments. Therefore, training in understanding endoscopic equipment, handling techniques, and equipment care can be helpful in addressing this issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of educational courses and training about basic endoscopic handling and care in gastrointestinal endoscopic care and services. Methods A number of new endoscopists, nurses, and nurse assistants were enrolled in a course for training in basic endoscopic handling and care. Data on the type of damage, cause, cost, and timing of endoscopic repair were prospectively collected. Data from the post-training period then were compared with retrospective data from the pre-training period. Results This study demonstrated that after training, there was less damage to endoscopes, lower costs associated with it, and repair times were shorter for endoscopes than before the training course. Post-training results indicated savings of a total of $ 40,617.21 or £ 29,539.78 and 102.6 days per damaged endoscope. Conclusions Basic endoscopic handling and care training plays an important role for both endoscopists and nurses, as well as in endoscopy facilities, specifically in avoiding the nuisance of unwanted and broken endoscopes. This could be beneficial for both hospital finances and endoscopic services.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Khalid Bashir ◽  
Shahzad Anjum ◽  
Mohamed Dewji ◽  
Zeenat Khuda Bakhsh ◽  
Hamza Said Wali ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260225
Arnaud Iradukunda ◽  
Emmanuel Nene Odjidja ◽  
Stephane Karl Ndayishima ◽  
Egide Ngendakumana ◽  
Gabin Pacifique Ndayishimiye ◽  

Introduction Hypertension is a major threat to public health globally. Especially in sub-Saharan African countries, this coexists with high burden of other infectious diseases, creating a complex public health situation which is difficult to address. Tackling this will require targeted public health intervention based on evidence that well defines the at risk population. In this study, using retrospective data from two referral hospitals in Burundi, we model the risk factors of hypertension in Burundi. Materials and methods Retrospective data of a sample of 353 randomly selected from a population of 4,380 patients admitted in 2019 in two referral hospitals in Burundi: Military and University teaching hospital of Kamenge. The predictive risk factors were carried out by fixed effect logistic regression. Model performance was assessed with Area under Curve (AUC) method. Model was internally validated using bootstrapping method with 2000 replications. Both data processing and data analysis were done using R software. Results Overall, 16.7% of the patients were found to be hypertensive. This study didn’t showed any significant difference of hypertension’s prevalences among women (16%) and men (17.7%). After adjustment of the model for cofounding covariates, associated risk factors found were advanced age (40–59 years) and above 60 years, high education level, chronic kidney failure, high body mass index, familial history of hypertension. In absence of these highlighted risk factors, the risk of hypertension occurrence was about 2 per 1000 persons. This probability is more than 90% in patients with more than three risk factors. Conclusion The relatively high prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension in Burundi raises a call for concern especially in this context where there exist an equally high burden of infectious diseases, other chronic diseases including chronic malnutrition. Targeting interventions based on these identified risk factors will allow judicious channel of resources and effective public health planning.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
pp. 101274
Jelle Van Cauwenberg ◽  
Paul Schepers ◽  
Benedicte Deforche ◽  
Bas de Geus

Vanessa A Fabrizio ◽  
Christine L. Phillips ◽  
Adam Lane ◽  
Christina Baggott ◽  
Snehit Prabhu ◽  

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells have transformed the therapeutic options for relapsed/refractory (R/R) B-cell ALL. Data for CAR therapy in extramedullary (EM) involvement is limited. Retrospective data was abstracted from the Pediatric Real World CAR Consortium (PRWCC) of 184 infused patients from 15 US institutions. Response (CR) rate, overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and duration of B-cell aplasia (BCA) in patients referred for tisagenlecleucel with EM disease (both CNS3 and non-CNS EM) were compared to bone marrow (BM) only. Patients with CNS disease were further stratified for comparison. Outcomes are reported on 55 patients with EM disease prior to CAR (n=40 CNS3; n=15 non-CNS EM). The median age at infusion in CNS cohort was 10 years (range &lt;1-25) and the non-CNS EM cohort was 13 years (2-26). In patients with CNS disease, 88% (35/40) achieved a CR, versus only 66% (10/15) with non-CNS EM disease. Patients with CNS disease (both with and without marrow involvement) had comparable 24-month OS outcomes to non-CNS EM or BM only (p=0.41). There was no difference in 12-month RFS between CNS, non-CNS EM, or BM only patients (p=0.92). No increased toxicity was seen with CNS or non-CNS EM disease (p=0.3). Active CNS disease at time of infusion did not impact outcomes. Isolated (iCNS) disease trended towards improved OS when compared to combined CNS and BM (p=0.12). R/R EM disease can be effectively treated with tisagenlecleucel with toxicity, relapse rates and survival rates comparable to patients with BM only. Outcomes for iCNS relapse are encouraging.

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