socio demographic factors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Thapasya Maya

The workplace is not immune to conflict and stress, specifically when fulfilling people's responsibilities at great personal costs. Doctors and nurses are always on the frontline in hospitals, vaulting from one stressful high-stakes situation to the next. The HEXACO model of personality traits: Honesty-humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, has long been hypothesized to be a major predicting factor when determining individuals' responses to stress and susceptibility to experiencing depression. Most research suggests that personality traits resonate with a person's cognitive abilities and how they can deal with stress and depression. However, there is a lack of research on their correlation to depression severity in the Middle East. The current study aimed to investigate the impact of HEXACO personality traits and socio-demographic factors on depression amongst doctors and nurses. A sample of 170 doctors and nurses (62.1% doctors) completed HEXACO-60 and PHQ-9 depression severity questionnaires. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, ANOVA, correlation, and regression analysis. The findings showed that Honesty-humility was the strongest predictor, while extraversion was the second strongest. Emotionality had the least impact on depression. The relationship between Agreeableness and Openness to Experience with depression was insignificant. However, gender, age, working hours, and work experience were significant predictors of depression. Marital status and level of specialization were insignificant predictors. Thus, it was concluded that not all HEXACO traits and socio-demographics predict depression. Study findings could be utilized in the implementation of employee recruitment, job crafting, positive psychology, and coaching.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 156-162
Mausumi Basu ◽  
Ripan Saha ◽  
Subhra Samujjwal Basu ◽  
Vineeta Shukla ◽  
Ankita Mishra ◽  

The Government of India launched “COVID-19 vaccination drive” on 16th January, 2021 and health care workers were the first to be prioritised for vaccination. However, the uncertainty regarding safety and efficacy of the vaccine was the major concern amongst them. These led to vaccine hesitancy and ultimately drop out.To estimate the proportion of drop out of COVID-19 vaccination among vaccine-hesitant health care workers (HCWs) of a tertiary care hospital and to find out their perception and other background characteristics responsible for drop out. A facility based descriptive type of observational study, cross-sectional in design was carried out among 329 HCWs of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata from 16th March- 12thApril, 2021using a pre-designed, pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The study population selected by simple random sampling technique. Data was analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS v25.0 in the form of descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. About 44.1% of the study population didn’t take the COVID-19 vaccine. Socio-demographic factors like age, gender, religion, education, occupation,perception regarding necessity of vaccination, vaccine efficacy, dose and contraindication, safety in humans and role in future infections were significantly associated with drop out. There was a high proportion of vaccine drop out among health care workers. Different modifiable perceptions with socio-demographic factors had played important roles in COVID-19 vaccination drop out. As the global threat of COVID-19 continues, greater efforts through campaigns that target HCWs are needed to improve the intention of professionals’ vaccine acceptance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Majid Heidari Jamebozorgi ◽  
Ali Karamoozian ◽  
Tayebe Ilaghinezhad Bardsiri ◽  
Hojjat Sheikhbardsiri

BackgroundIn the recent pandemic, nurses have faced workload and being exposed to burnout. Resilience helps address work-related psychological problems such as stressful events and burnout. According to the roles of nurses in the healthcare system, we investigated the relationship between resiliency and burnout in nurses.Material and MethodsIn this descriptive analytical cross-sectional study, 364 nurses participated from April to June 2021. Census sampling was used to recruit participants. Maslach burnout inventory (MBI), Connor-Davidson Resiliency Scale (CDRISC), and a demographic check-list were utilized to collect data. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 22. Shapiro-Wilk, Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U-test, correlation analysis, and generalized linear model were applied accordingly.ResultsOverall, the findings showed that nurses had severe symptoms of burnout and a moderate level of resilience. The two domains of burnout, emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment had a significantly negative correlation with resilience (r = −0.442, p < 0.001 and r = −0.351, p = 0.03, respectively). Linear regression showed that demographic characteristics (Hospital type, ward type, gender, and overtime) were the major predictors of the 3 sub-categories of burnout. A significant negative correlation was observed between burnout and resilience highlighting the role of resilience in reducing burnout (P < 0.05).ConclusionIn order to help nurses to tackle and endure burnout in pandemic times, there is a need to implement national and local policies to help them accordingly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 921
Pol Camps-Aragó ◽  
Laura Temmerman ◽  
Wim Vanobberghen ◽  
Simon Delaere

Several mobility-related issues persist in and around urban areas. Autonomous vehicles promise substantial environmental, safety, and economic benefits but may also cause unintended adverse effects that stem from single-passenger mobility becoming more affordable and accessible. While using them for public transport (i.e., autonomous shuttles) can help avoid such downsides, there are many challenges to their adoption, particularly ones that are related to citizen acceptance and economic aspects. Based on a novel survey of Brussels’ citizens, we provide insights from user opinions on last-mile autonomous shuttle services and analyze the effect of various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors affecting such acceptance. Our respondents exhibit an overall positive acceptance albeit with a limited willingness to pay for it. In addition, based on expert interviews, we provide a discussion on appropriate business models and policy recommendations to help ensure the timely adoption of AVs in Belgium that adapts to mobility needs and policy goals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (s1) ◽  
Yucheng Wang ◽  
Thomas C. Tsai ◽  
Dustin Duncan ◽  
John Ji

With people restricted to their residences, neighbourhood characteristics may affect behaviour and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We aimed to analyse whether neighbourhoods with higher walkability, public transit, biking services and higher socio-economic status were associated with lower COVID-19 infection during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Massachusetts. We used Walk Score®, Bike Score®, and Transit Score® indices to assess the walkability and transportation of 72 cities in Massachusetts, USA based on availability of data and collected the total COVID-19 case numbers of each city up to 10 April 2021. We used univariate and multivariate linear models to analyse the effects of these scores on COVID-19 cases per 100,000 in each city, adjusting for demographic covariates and all covariates, respectively. In the 72 cities studied, the average Walk Score, Transit Score and Bike Score was 48.7, 36.5 and 44.1, respectively, with a total of 426,182 COVID-19 cases. Higher Walk Score, Transit Score, and Bike Score rankings were negatively associated with COVID-19 cases per 100,000 persons (<0.05). Cities with a higher proportion of Hispanic population and a lower median household income were associated with more COVID-19 cases per 100,000 (P<0.05). Higher Walk Score, Transit Score and Bike Score were shown to be protective against COVID-19 transmission, while socio-demographic factors were associated with COVID-19 infection. Understanding the complex relationship of how the structure of the urban environment may constrain commuting patterns for residents and essential workers during COVID-19 would offer potential insights on future pandemic preparedness and response.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Oana R. Groene ◽  
Maren Ehrhardt ◽  
Corinna Bergelt

Abstract Objective While the development of communication competencies in medical schools plays a pivotal role in the curriculum, studies show that students’ communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may vary based on gender and ethnicity. The goal of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic factors that influence medical students’ communication abilities and, more specifically, to what extent their attitude toward communication skills learning and patient orientation associate with communication abilities. Our population included medical students admitted in 2017. Used tools included a communication score, the patient-provider orientation and communication skills attitudes scales. Results Three hundred and sixty-five students participated in the study (56.4% female, 85.2% German native speakers, mean age 24.2 ± 3.5 years). Female and German native speaking students had a better communication skills OSCE performance, were more patient-oriented and had more positive attitudes toward communication skills learning than male and non-native speaking students. There was a significant association between gender, native tongue, attitudes towards communication skills learning and communication skills OSCE performance. In conclusion, to support medical students to improve their communication proficiency and attitudes towards the importance of clear communication and patient-oriented care, medical educators should consider teaching and assessment strategies that address socio-cultural aspects of communication.

2022 ◽  
Viviane Richard ◽  
Roxane Dumont ◽  
Elsa Lorthe ◽  
Helene Baysson ◽  
Maria-Eugenia Zaballa ◽  

Background Various studies showed the negative impact of COVID-19-related lockdowns and school closures on the well-being of children and adolescents. However, the prevalence and consequences of occasional short-term school disruptions due to COVID-19-related quarantine or isolation remain unknown. This study evaluated their impact on the well-being and stress level of children and adolescents. Methods In June/July 2021, we conducted a survey selecting a representative sample of children and adolescents of a Swiss canton population. Parents of school-aged children reported information about them missing school because of COVID-19, from August 2020 to June 2021, as well as about their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measured with the KINDL® scale and their stress level. Results Among the 538 participants, 216/538 (40.1%) pupils missed school at least once for COVID-19-related causes, with a total of 272 absences. We observed no relationship between the frequency of COVID-19-related absences and the HRQoL or stress level, even when stratifying by the type of absence or socio-demographic factors. Discussion Overall, these findings are reassuring in that quarantines and related school disruptions, which we know are a common and effective way of controlling SARS-CoV-2 transmission, did not seem to meaningfully impact children and adolescent's wellbeing and stress. Finding the right balance between SARS-CoV-2 control and young populations' well-being is challenging, and the current results provide additional information for decision makers.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Richa Chaudhary ◽  
Madhu Lata ◽  
Mantasha Firoz

Purpose The purpose of this study is to present an empirical account of the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of workplace incivility (experienced and instigated) in the Indian workplace. Design/methodology/approach The study sample consisted of 1,133 employees working in service organizations mainly banks, hotels, academic institutions and information technology firms. The authors tested the proposed model on the same set of respondents in two different studies. The phenomenon of instigated incivility and its determinants were examined in Study 1, while Study 2 looked at experienced incivility and its antecedents. The data were analyzed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical operations in SPSS 24. Findings The results of both studies revealed that employees’ age, gender, educational qualification, position, nature of the organization, type of the organization and duration of working hours significantly predict the onset of workplace incivility. Nevertheless, marital status and tenure failed to predict the manifestation of uncivil behaviors in the organization. Research limitations/implications The scope of this study was restricted to the Indian service sector with a focus on only two types of workplace incivility (instigated and experienced). Practical implications The managers are advised to be mindful of employees’ socio-demographic differences while devising interventions to tackle the issues of uncivil acts at work. Originality/value This study is one of the pioneer attempts to explore the impact of socio-demographic factors on employees’ tendency to instigate and experience incivility at work in India. In doing so, the study enriches the scant literature on workplace incivility by establishing the role of individual differences in determining the occurrence of incivility in the workplace.

2022 ◽  
Armstrong Dzomba ◽  
Hae-Young Kim ◽  
Andrew Tomita ◽  
Alain Vandormael ◽  
Kaymarlin Govender ◽  

Abstract Globally, South Africa ranks worst for people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the unique legacy of internal labour migration continues to be a major driver of the regional epidemic, interrupting treatment-as-prevention efforts. The study examined levels, trends, and predictors of migration in rural KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, using population-based surveillance data from 2005 through 2017. We followed 69 604 adult participants aged 15-49 years and recorded their migration events (i.e., out-migration from the surveillance area) in 423 038 person-years over 525 397 observations. Multiple failure Cox-regression models were used to measure the risk of migration by socio-demographic factors: age, sex, educational status, marital status, HIV, and community antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage. Overall, 69% of the population cohort experienced at least one migration event during the follow-up period. The average incidence rate of migration was 9.96 events and 13.23 events per 100 person-years in women and men, respectively. Migration rates declined from 2005 to 2008 then peaked in 2012 for both women and men. Adjusting for other covariates, the risk of migration was 3.4-times higher among young women aged 20-24 years compared to those aged ≥40 years (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR]=3.37, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 3:19-3.57), and 2.9-times higher among young men aged 20-24 years compared to those aged ≥40 years (aHR=2.86, 95% CI:2.69-3.04). There was a 9% and 27% decrease in risk of migration among both women (aHR=0.91, 95% CI: 0.83 – 0.99) and men (aHR=0.73, 95% CI 0.66 – 0.82) respectively per every 1% increase in community ART coverage. Young unmarried women including those living with HIV, migrated at a magnitude similar to that of their male counterparts, and lowered as ART coverage increased over time, reflecting the role of improved HIV services across space in reducing out-migration. A deeper understanding of the characteristics of a migrating population provides critical information towards identifying and addressing gaps in the HIV prevention and care continuum in an era of high mobility.

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