Dose Reduction
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2021 ◽  
pp. 109-118
T. M. Ostroumova ◽  
O. D. Ostroumova ◽  
A. S. Soloveva

Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is one of the most frequent extrapyramidal disorders that develops against the background of prescribing a large number of medications. Initially, DIP was described as an adverse drug reactions (ADRs) against the background of the use of antipsychotic drugs, but later recognized as ADRs of a number of other drugs, including prokinetics, antidepressants, calcium channel blockers and antiepileptic drugs. The relative risk of developing LIP on the background of taking typical antipsychotics increased by 2.92 times compared to patients who do not take these drugs. The risk of developing DIP in patients receiving flunarizine is increased by 2.75-4.07 times. The risk of DIP with the use of antidepressants is increased by 2.14 times, among the drugs of this group with an increased risk of DIP, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is most often associated with DIP (relative risk 1.24). Among other antidepressants, there is evidence of the development of DIP against the background of the use of duloxetine, mirtazapine, amitriptyll clomipramine, venlafaxine, trazodone. Among anticonvulsants, DIP can rarely develop against the background of the appointment of valproic acid, gabapentin, pregabalin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine. The risk of DIP in patients receiving metoclopramide is extremely low (0.06%), but it is 2.16 times higher compared to people who do not take this drug. Among drugs from other groups, DIP can occur against the background of the use of lithium carbonate, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, amiodarone, captopril, amphotericin B. If DIP develops, it is necessary, if possible, to reduce the dose or cancel the inducer drug, or replace it with another drug with minimal risk of DIP. Symptoms of DIP most often regress within a few weeks or months after dose reduction or withdrawal of the drug inducer. If the symptoms persist longer, it is necessary to exclude the presence of Parkinson’s disease or dementia with with Lewy bodies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Wenshui Yao ◽  
Longxin Zhang ◽  
Guolin Lu ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Propofol, a widely used sedative in endoscopic procedures, sometimes causes cardiopulmonary complications. Intravenous lidocaine can diminish visceral pain and decrease the dose of propofol. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous lidocaine in reducing propofol dosage during paediatric colonoscopy. Methods Forty children who underwent colonoscopy were divided into two groups. Lidocaine hydrochloride (1.5 mg/kg induction and 2 mg/kg/h maintenance) was given intravenously to the lidocaine group, and the same amount of saline was given to the control group after they received lidocaine induction. Propofol initial plasma concentration of 5 μg/mL was targeted, and the procedure was performed after the bispectral index value reached 55. The primary outcome was propofol requirement. Results The propofol requirement in the lidocaine group was decreased by 35.5% (128.6 ± 30.4 mg vs. 199.4 ± 57.6 mg; p < 0.001; 95%CI: − 100.60, − 41.02). The incidence of involuntary body movements was significantly lower in the lidocaine group (p = 0.028; OR = 0.17; 95%CI: 0.03, 0.92). The awakening time (p < 0.001; 95%CI: − 7.67, − 5.13) and recovery times (p < 0.001; 95%CI: − 7.45, − 4.35) were significantly lower in the lidocaine group. Pain was significantly less at 30 min and 60 min after the procedure in the lidocaine group (0 [0–4] vs. 3 [0–5], p < 0. 001; 0 [0–2] vs. 1 [0–3], p = 0.001). There was no difference in the incidence of bradycardia, hypotension, or hypoxia between the two groups. Conclusions For colonoscopy procedures in paediatric patients, intravenous lidocaine reduces the amount of propofol needed, provides better sedation and postprocedural pain management, as well as a reduction in recovery time. Trial registration The trial was registered on November 6, 2020 at China Clinical Trials Registration Center ( ref.: ChiCTR 2,000,039,706.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 3-11
Alenka Matjašič ◽  
Nejc Mekiš

Introduction: The purpose of this work is to explore which studies have been performed in the field of radiation dose reduction in pelvic x-ray imaging and to determine optimization techniques for dose reduction.Materials and methods: A scoping review was performed by using databases Science Direct, PubMed, EBSCO Host and Springer Link. The keywords used were "radiography", "dose reduction", "pelvis" and "pelvic". Exclusion criteria were the keywords "CT" and "MRI".Results: 15 scientific articles that analyse the current dose impacts in selected institutions or regions were reviewed as a starting point to optimise protocols, to establish diagnostic reference levels, or to suggest different measures for dose reduction. Studies suggest the use of digital image receptor, adaptation of exposure parameters; they also point out the use of air gap instead of radiographic grid and investigate the usefulness of the gonad protection. A difference was noticed in developing countries that focus more on the establishment of DRLs and following the guidelines provided by other countries rather than developing new dose optimisation techniques.Conclusion: A pelvic x-ray must be performed with a low radiation dose impact that still doesn't compromise the diagnostic value of the image, which can be achieved by following the ALARA principle and with certain adjustments, suggested by the considered studies, especially with exposure parameters. The establishment of national and local diagnostic reference levels is also required.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Junting Jia ◽  
Yimeng Guo ◽  
Raghav Sundar ◽  
Aishwarya Bandla ◽  
Zhiying Hao

PurposeTaxanes are widely used in gynecological cancer therapy, however, taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy (TIPN) limits chemotherapy dose and reduces patients’ quality of life. As a safe and convenient intervention, cryotherapy has been recommended as a promising intervention in the recent clinical guidelines for the prevention of TIPN. Although there are a considerable number of studies which explored the use of cryotherapy in preventing chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), there is insufficient large-scale clinical evidence. We performed a meta-analysis on the current available evidence to examine whether cryotherapy can prevent TIPN in cancer patients receiving taxanes.MethodsWe searched databases including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to August 3, 2021 for eligible trials. Clinical trials that examined the efficacy of cryotherapy for prevention of TIPN were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of TIPN, and secondary outcomes were incidence of taxane dose reduction and changes in nerve conduction studies. The meta-analysis software (RevMan 5.3) was used to analyze the data.ResultsWe analyzed 2250 patients from 9 trials. Assessments using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) score showed that cryotherapy could significantly reduce the incidence of motor and sensory neuropathy of grade≥2 (sensory: RR 0.65, 95%CI 0.56 to 0.75, p&lt;0.00001; motor: RR 0.18, 95% CI [0.03, 0.94], p=0.04). When evaluated using the Patient Neuropathy Questionnaire (PNQ), cryotherapy demonstrated significant reduction in the incidence of sensory neuropathy (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.31], p&lt;0.0001), but did not show significant reduction in the incidence of motor neuropathy (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.88, p=0.28). Cryotherapy was associated with reduced incidences of taxane dose reduction due to TIPN (RR 0.48, 95% CI [0.24, 0.95], p=0.04) and had potential to preserve motor nerves.ConclusionsCryotherapy is likely to prevent TIPN in patients receiving taxanes. High quality and sufficient amount of evidence is warranted.

2021 ◽  
Katie Mycock ◽  
Lin Zhan ◽  
Kieran Hart ◽  
Gavin Taylor-Stokes ◽  
Gary Milligan ◽  

Aim: To report the Europe Ibrance Real World Insights study findings. Methods: Physicians abstracted demographic/clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes data for women with HR+/HER2- locally advanced breast cancer (ABC) or metastatic  breast cancer (MBC) receiving palbociclib + aromatase inhibitor (AI) or palbociclib + fulvestrant. Kaplan–Meier analysis estimated progression-free rates (PFRs) and survival rates (SRs). Results: 238 physicians abstracted data for 1723 patients. For patients (>90%) initiating at 125 mg/day, dose was reduced in 18.9% of palbociclib + AI and 12.3% of palbociclib + fulvestrant patients. At 12 months, PFR for palbociclib + AI was 88.1%, and SR was 97.3%; PFR for palbociclib + fulvestrant was 79.8%, and SR was 97.5%. Conclusion: Low dose-reduction rates and favorable PFRs and SRs suggest that palbociclib + AI/fulvestrant is well tolerated and effective for HR+/HER2– ABC/MBC in real-world clinical practice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ziyu Wang ◽  
Xin Du ◽  
Ken Chen ◽  
Shanshan Li ◽  
Zhiheng Yu ◽  

Background and Aim: As one of the second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–tyrosine kinase inhibitors, afatinib brings survival benefits to patients with common and rare EGFR mutations. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of 30 and 40 mg of afatinib in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using qualitative and quantitative analysis methods so as to provide reference for clinical medication.Methods: The PubMed, Embase,, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang databases were thoroughly searched from inception to February 26, 2021. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and evaluated the quality. RevMan and Stata 15.0 were used for meta-analysis.Results: Twelve cohort studies including 1290 patients for final analysis were selected; of which, 1129 patients were analyzed to measure the effectiveness outcomes and 470 patients were analyzed for safety outcomes. In patients with non-brain metastasis, the progression-free survival of the first- or second-line treatment with reduced-dose afatinib was equivalent to the conventional dose. In terms of safety, the reduced dose could significantly lower the incidence of severe diarrhea and severe rash, but not the total incidence of diarrhea, rash, and all levels of paronychia.Conclusions: The incidence of common serious adverse reactions was significantly lower with 30 mg of afatinib than with 40 mg of afatinib in patients with NSCLC. The effectiveness appeared to be similar to that in patients with non-brain metastasis. This study provides a reference for clinical dose reduction of afatinib.Systematic Review Registration: [PROSPERO], identifier [CRD42021238043]

Neurosurgery ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 89 (Supplement_2) ◽  
pp. S73-S73
Syed M Adil ◽  
Lefko T Charalambous ◽  
Charis A Spears ◽  
Musa Kiyani ◽  
Sarah E Hodges ◽  

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