systemic therapy
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Carsten Nieder ◽  
Siv G. Aanes ◽  
Ellinor Haukland

Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate overall survival after systemic therapy, largely chemotherapy, in patients with small cell or non-small cell lung cancer and brain metastases. After completion of systemic therapy, some patients received planned brain irradiation, while others were followed. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results Thirty-eight patients were included (28 small cell, 20 followed with imaging). Six of these 20 patients (30%) received delayed radiotherapy during follow-up. Planned radiotherapy (n = 18, intention-to-treat) was associated with longer survival from diagnosis of brain metastases, median 10.8 versus 6.1 months, p = 0.025. Delayed radiotherapy still resulted in numerically better survival than no radiotherapy at all (median 8.8 versus 5.3 months, not significant). If calculated from the start of delayed radiotherapy, median survival was only 2.7 months. In a multivariable analysis, both Karnofsky performance status ≥ 70 (p = 0.03) and planned radiotherapy (p = 0.05) were associated with better survival. Conclusion In patients ineligible for targeted agents, planned radiotherapy in a modern treatment setting was associated with longer survival compared to no radiotherapy. Timing and type of radiotherapy in such patients should be evaluated in prospective trials to identify patients who might not need planned radiotherapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 231-242
Hal Hirte ◽  
Raymond Poon ◽  
Xiaomei Yao ◽  
Taymaa May ◽  
Josee-Lyne Ethier ◽  

Background: This study aims to provide guidance for the use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic therapy in women with newly diagnosed stage II–IV epithelial ovary, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods: EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library were investigated for relevant systematic reviews and phase III trials. Articles focusing on consolidation and maintenance therapies were excluded. Results: For women with potentially resectable disease, primary cytoreductive surgery, followed by six to eight cycles of intravenous three-weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin is recommended. For those with a high-risk profile for primary cytoreductive surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be an option. Adjuvant chemotherapy with six cycles of dose-dense weekly paclitaxel plus three-weekly carboplatin can be considered for women of Japanese descent. In women with stage III or IV disease, the incorporation of bevacizumab concurrent with paclitaxel and carboplatin is not recommended for use as adjuvant therapy unless bevacizumab is continued as maintenance therapy. Intravenous paclitaxel plus intraperitoneal cisplatin and paclitaxel can be considered for stage III optimally debulked women who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapy with bevacizumab should not be considered as an option for stage II–IV optimally debulked women. Discussion: The recommendations represent a current standard of care that is feasible to implement and valued by both clinicians and patients.

Seema A. Khan ◽  
Fengmin Zhao ◽  
Lori J. Goldstein ◽  
David Cella ◽  
Mark Basik ◽  

PURPOSE Distant metastases are present in 6% or more of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. In this context, locoregional therapy for the intact primary tumor has been hypothesized to improve overall survival (OS), but clinical trials have reported conflicting results. METHODS Women presenting with metastatic breast cancer and an intact primary tumor received systemic therapy for 4-8 months; if no disease progression occurred, they were randomly assigned to locoregional therapy for the primary site (surgery and radiotherapy per standards for nonmetastatic disease) or continuing sysmetic therapy. The primary end point was OS; locoregional control and quality of life were secondary end points. The trial design provided 85% power to detect a 19.3% absolute difference in the 3-year OS rate in randomly assigned patients. The stratified log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used to compare OS between arms. Cumulative incidence of locoregional progression was compared using Gray's test. Quality-of-life assessment used standard instruments. RESULTS Of 390 participants enrolled, 256 were randomly assigned: 131 to continued systemic therapy and 125 to early locoregional therapy. The 3-year OS was 67.9% without and 68.4% with early locoregional therapy (hazard ratio = 1.11; 90% CI, 0.82 to 1.52; P = .57). The median OS was 53.1 months (95% CI, 47.9 to not estimable) in the systemic therapy arm and 54.9 months (95% CI, 46.7 to not estimable) in the locoregional therapy arm. Locoregional progression was less frequent in those randomly assigned to locoregional therapy (3-year rate: 16.3% v 39.8%; P < .001). Quality-of-life measures were largely similar between arms. CONCLUSION Early locoregional therapy for the primary site did not improve survival in patients presenting with metastatic breast cancer. Although it was associated with improved locoregional control, this had no overall impact on quality of life.

Paul R. Burchard ◽  
Alexander C. Chacon ◽  
Alexa Melucci ◽  
Anthony S. Casabianca ◽  
Subir Goyal ◽  

Megan E. Daly

Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is the standard treatment for medically inoperable, early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer. SABR results in high rates of in-field tumor control, but among larger and more biologically aggressive tumors, regional and distant failures are problematic. Cytotoxic chemotherapy is rarely used in this patient population and the benefit is unclear. Alternative systemic therapy options with a milder side-effect profile are of considerable interest, and several randomized phase III trials are currently testing immune checkpoint inhibitors in this setting. We review the rationale, data, and ongoing studies evaluating systemic therapy in medically inoperable, early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer treated with SABR.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 254
Ji-hoon Jung ◽  
Chae-Moon Hong ◽  
Il Jo ◽  
Shin-Young Jeong ◽  
Sang-Woo Lee ◽  

The flare phenomenon (FP) on bone scintigraphy after the initiation of systemic treatment seriously complicates evaluations of therapeutic response in patients with bone metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can differentiate FP from disease progression on bone scintigraphy in these patients. Breast or prostate cancer patients with bone metastases who newly underwent systemic therapy were reviewed. Pretreatment baseline and follow-up data, including age, pathologic factors, type of systemic therapy, radiologic and bone scintigraphy findings, and ALP levels, were obtained. Univariate and multivariate analyses of these factors were performed to predict FP. An increased extent and/or new lesions were found in 160 patients on follow-up bone scintigraphy after therapy. Among the 160 patients, 80 (50%) had an improvement on subsequent bone scintigraphy (BS), while subsequent scintigraphy also showed an increased uptake in 80 (50%, progression). Multiple regression analysis revealed that stable or decreased ALP was an independent predictor for FP (p < 0.0001). ALP was an independent predictor for FP on subgroup analysis for breast and prostate cancer (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0223, respectively). Results of the study suggest that ALP is a useful serologic marker to differentiate FP from disease progression on bone scintigraphy in patients with bone metastasis. Clinical interpretation for scintigraphic aggravation can be further improved by the ALP data and it may prevent fruitless changes of therapeutic modality by misdiagnosis of disease progression in cases of FP.

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