Water Flows
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D. A. Antonenkov ◽  
A. E. Shchodro ◽  

The article presents the methodology of hydrological modeling of water flows for constructing flow plans in the design of hydraulic structures. On the basis of these calculations, both the specific costs of bottom and suspended sediments in each flow stream and the deformation of the riverbed at various points in time can be determined. The results of experiments with spatial models of river sections are considered. The developed technique makes it possible to calculate the deformation of the bottom and shores and form a flow organization scheme, which, due to an increase in velocities in some section of the channel, ensures sediment transport to more remote areas of the seashore, up to the open sea.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Pier Paolo Miglietta ◽  
Christian Fischer ◽  
Federica De Leo

PurposeIn a globalized economic system, the role of agrifood production is to ensure at the same time both the population's livelihood and environmental resource conservation. The present study aims at expanding the debate on the potentials of the fair-trade in terms of environmental sustainability.Design/methodology/approachThe research presents a methodology divided into three phases: (1) the identification of the water footprint values associated with the production of bananas, cocoa and coffee imported from developing countries to Italy; (2) the calculation of the virtual water volumes used to produce the crops imported from developing countries to Italy through fair-trade; (3) the analysis of the economic water productivity, obtained by the fair-trade premium, for bananas, cocoa and coffee.FindingsThe results of this study identified and measured the amount of virtual water flows and water savings or losses deriving from the fair-trade of bananas, cocoa and coffee. The average virtual water flow related to the fair-trade imports in Italy amounts to 7.27 million m3 for bananas, 22,275 m3 for cocoa and 14,334 m3 for coffee. The research findings also highlight that fair-trade and the related premium ensures at the same time the achievement of social and institutional purposes but also the remuneration of virtual water used within the life cycle of the imported crops.Originality/valuePrevious scientific literature showed that fair-trade premium has commonly been used to finance environmental protection. No study has evaluated the environmental impacts associated with fair-trade, nor the monetary value associated with the natural resources exploited to produce crops to be exported. This empirical paper fills a literature gap in terms of identification, measurement and evaluation of virtual water flows along the supply chain processes of some fair-traded crops, also providing, through the economic water productivity approach, a useful tool for decision-makers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1.2) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Kole Odutola

As a child born and battered (not buttered) in Lagos, my thoughts about Ibadan people are three-fold. I think of a different accent when they speak English. When you read Niyi Osundare’s article you will moderate that notion. The other stereotype that comes to the mind of this Lagos boy is that Ibadan houses do not have street addresses but you can describe where you are going or looking for by Agboole Oloolu or Agboole Alabẹni (as in Bimbo Adelakun’s Novel). The third stereotype is that people of Ibadan eat a lot of ẹ̀kọ and ọọ̀ ̀lẹ̀ (as in mó̩inmó ́ i̩ ́n-beans pudding in English). I cannot really trace where I got that last one. It will be great to read what people of Ibadan think about Lagos city, i ̀lú iná ń jó ogiri o ̀ ̀ sá - The city where fire burns be the walls remain. The place we sing its praises as aromi ́ ṣá lẹ̀gbẹ lẹ̀gbẹ -The city where water flows in abundance. Let me tell you my story of Ibadan through the eyes of writers and thinkers. My maternal grandmother was a mid-wife at Adeọyọ Hospital. My first train ride was to Ibadan and each time I hear the name Ibadan the smell of puff puff by Mama Room Two (aka Mrs. Lufadeju to adults) takes me over. Ten much later in life, the poem by J.P Clark in the West African verse 1 This is a revised and expanded version of a review originally published in TCN: The Cultural Newspaper on January 29, 2020. 332 Kole Odutola competed with the puff puff of Mama Room Two. To mention Ibadan and not recite the poem was like an academic crime.

Omar Farhan Al-Hardanee ◽  
İlyas Çankaya ◽  
Abdulmuttalib A. Muhsen ◽  
Huseyin Canbolat

The core of a typical hydroelectric power plant is the turbine. Vibration and overheating in a turbine occur when water flows through it, and with increased vibration and high temperature, it will cause the turbine blade to break. In this study, the control and monitoring system is designed to predict and avoid any error before it occurs. This process is achieved by measuring vibration and temperature using sensors and sending signals through the Arduino to the graphical user interfaces (GUI), the system compares the signals taken from the sensors with the permissible limits, and when the permissible limits are exceeded, the processor takes appropriate measures to open and close the turbine gates, where the data is displayed in matrix laboratory graphical user interfaces (MATLAB’s GUI) screen. In this way, monitoring is done, and the appropriate action are taken to avoid mistakes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 947 (1) ◽  
pp. 012008
Trung Kim Nguyen ◽  
Tuan Nguyen Ba ◽  
Pha Bui Ngoc ◽  
Abdul Mutalib Embong ◽  
Ngoc Nguyen Thi Nhu ◽  

Abstract The aim of this paper is to propose a model to simulate the behaviour of water flows in shell and tube heat exchanger. Particularly, the continuity equation, the general heat transfer equations and the energy equation in COMSOL Multiphysics software were implemented in the numerical modelling. Besides, the experiment was also conducted to validate the proposed COMSOL model. The water temperature at locations close to the inlet and outlet of the shell side was respectively predicted at 31.5°C and 34.6°C in the simulation, and it was respectively measured at 31.5°C and 35°C in the experiment. These findings showed that the simulation results had a good agreement with the experiment. Next, this model was extended to simulate the overall heat coefficient and the pressure drops of the water flows in such heat exchanger. The overall heat coefficient was at 736.62 W/m2K. The pressure drops at the inlet/outlet areas of the shell and tubes were at 849.93 Pa and 6255.50 Pa, respectively. Conclusive evidence showed that the proposed model is a reliable method for studying the heat transfer behaviour of the shell and heat exchanger.

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