watershed scale
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2022 ◽  
Amelia L. Grose ◽  
Shannon L. Speir ◽  
Audrey N. Thellman ◽  
Martha M. Dee ◽  
Jennifer L. Tank

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 137-163
Moussa Moustapha ◽  
Loris Deirmendjian ◽  
David Sebag ◽  
Jean-Jacques Braun ◽  
Stéphane Audry ◽  

Abstract. Tropical rivers emit large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, in particular due to large wetland-to-river carbon (C) inputs. Yet, tropical African rivers remain largely understudied, and little is known about the partitioning of C sources between wetland and well-drained ecosystems to rivers. In a first-order sub-catchment (0.6 km2) of the Nyong watershed (Cameroon 27 800 km2), we fortnightly measured C in all forms and ancillary parameters in groundwater in a well-drained forest (hereafter referred to as non-flooded forest groundwater) and in the stream. In the first-order catchment, the simple land use shared between wetland and well-drained forest, together with drainage data, allowed the partitioning of C sources between wetland and well-drained ecosystems to the stream. Also, we fortnightly measured dissolved and particulate C downstream of the first-order stream to the main stem of order 6, and we supplemented C measurements with measures of heterotrophic respiration in stream orders 1 and 5. In the first-order stream, dissolved organic and inorganic C and particulate organic C (POC) concentrations increased during rainy seasons when the hydrological connectivity with the riparian wetland increased, whereas the concentrations of the same parameters decreased during dry seasons when the wetland was shrinking. In larger streams (order > 1), the same seasonality was observed, showing that wetlands in headwaters were significant sources of organic and inorganic C for downstream rivers, even though higher POC concentration evidenced an additional source of POC in larger streams during rainy seasons that was most likely POC originating from floating macrophytes. During rainy seasons, the seasonal flush of organic matter from the wetland in the first-order catchment and from the macrophytes in higher-order rivers significantly affected downstream metabolism, as evidenced by higher respiration rates in stream order 5 (756 ± 333 gC-CO2 m−2 yr−1) compared to stream 1 (286 ± 228 gC-CO2 m−2 yr−1). In the first-order catchment, the sum of the C hydrologically exported from non-flooded forest groundwater (6.2 ± 3.0 MgC yr−1) and wetland (4.0 ± 1.5 MgC yr−1) to the stream represented 3 %–5 % of the local catchment net C sink. In the first-order catchment, non-flooded forest groundwater exported 1.6 times more C than wetland; however, when weighed by surface area, C inputs from non-flooded forest groundwater and wetland to the stream contributed to 27 % (13.0 ± 6.2 MgC yr−1) and 73 % (33.0 ± 12.4 MgC yr−1) of the total hydrological C inputs, respectively. At the Nyong watershed scale, the yearly integrated CO2 degassing from the entire river network was 652 ± 161 GgC-CO2 yr−1 (23.4 ± 5.8 MgC CO2 km−2 yr−1 when weighed by the Nyong watershed surface area), whereas average heterotrophic respiration in the river and CO2 degassing rates was 521 ± 403 and 5085 ± 2544 gC-CO2 m−2 yr−1, which implied that only ∼ 10 % of the CO2 degassing at the water–air interface was supported by heterotrophic respiration in the river. In addition, the total fluvial C export to the ocean of 191 ± 108 GgC yr−1 (10.3 ± 5.8 MgC km−2 yr−1 when weighed by the Nyong watershed surface area) plus the yearly integrated CO2 degassing from the entire river network represented ∼ 11 % of the net C sink estimated for the whole Nyong watershed. In tropical watersheds, we show that wetlands largely influence riverine C variations and budget. Thus, ignoring the river–wetland connectivity might lead to the misrepresentation of C dynamics in tropical watersheds.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 198
Chun-Ting Lin ◽  
Ming-Chih Chiu ◽  
Mei-Hwa Kuo

Microplastic pollution is no longer neglected worldwide, as recent studies have unveiled its potential harm to ecosystems and, even worse, to human health. Numerous studies have documented the ubiquity of microplastics, reflecting the necessity of formulating corresponding policies to mitigate the accumulation of microplastics in natural environments. Although anthropogenic activities are generally acknowledged as the primary source of microplastics, a robust approach to identify sources of microplastics is needed to provide scientific suggestions for practical policymaking. This review elucidates recent microplastic studies on various approaches for quantifying or reflecting the degree to which anthropogenic activities contribute to microplastic pollution. Population density (i.e., often used to quantify anthropogenic activities) was not always significantly correlated with microplastic abundance. Furthermore, this review argues that considering potential sources near sample sites as characteristics that may serve to predict the spatial distribution of microplastics in aquatic environments is equivocal. In this vein, a watershed-scale measure that uses land-cover datasets to calculate different percentages of land use in the watershed margins delineated by using Geographic Information System (GIS) software is discussed and suggested. Progress in strategies for quantifying anthropogenic activities is important for guiding future microplastic research and developing effective management policies to prevent microplastic contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

Larry B. Barber ◽  
Kaycee E. Faunce ◽  
David W. Bertolatus ◽  
Michelle L. Hladik ◽  
Jeramy R. Jasmann ◽  

Matt Q Morison ◽  
Scott N Higgins ◽  
Kara Webster ◽  
Erik Emilson ◽  
Huaxia Yao ◽  

Abstract The wide range of forested landscapes in boreal environments store and cycle substantial amounts of carbon, although the capacity of these systems to act as either a carbon sink or source is uncertain under a changing climate. While there are clear reports of regional-scale increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in streams and lakes, there remains substantial watershed-scale variability in these patterns. Coherence is a framework for examining if variables of interest within adjacent spatial units change synchronously or asynchronously through time and has been widely applied in the context of lentic hydrochemistry, and which can shed light on the relative importance of regional- vs. local-scale controls. The objective of this research was to quantify coherence in discharge, DOC concentrations, and DOC loads in forested boreal watersheds, and to what extent coherence varied by season. Coherence was assessed using data from three long-term ecological research sites spanning boreal forest environments (IISD-Experimental Lakes Area, Turkey Lakes Watershed Study, and Dorset Environmental Science Centre) that included 29,829 DOC measurements across 739 stream-years, examining correlation between stream-pairs within each site, but not between sites. Seasonal coherence in DOC export was consistent across the three sites; coherence was significantly greater in spring than all other seasons, and was strongly related to discharge coherence. Currently, the season with the greatest loads (spring) is also the most coherent season, suggesting that annual between-stream coherence may be reduced if spring becomes proportionally less important in hydrologic budgets under a changing climate. This research aids in determining which factors contribute to synchronous watershed behaviour, and which factors may contribute to the timing and extent of individual watershed-scale deviations from landscape-level patterns.

Hiroki Mizumoto ◽  
Osamu Kishida ◽  
Kotaro Takai ◽  
Naru Matsuura ◽  
Hitoshi Araki

AbstractUnderstanding the distribution of invasive species and their reproductive area is crucial for their managements after invasion. While catch and observation surveys are still embraced, environmental DNA (eDNA) has been increasingly utilized as an efficient tool for identifying these species in the wild. In this study, we developed a Bufo-specific eDNA assay for detecting an invasive, toxic, and terrestrial toad species Bufo japonicus formosus in Hokkaido, Japan, and applied it to their reproductive area at watershed scale. The eDNA assay was field-validated in ponds where B. japonicus were observed, as well as in rivers downstream of the reproductive ponds. Thus, the assay provided us an opportunity to screen watersheds that include their reproductive area by collecting downstream water samples. Applying it to the Ishikari river basin, the largest river basin in Hokkaido (c.a., 14,330 km2), we detected toad eDNA at 32 out of 73 sampling sites. They are composed of eleven sites with species observation records nearby (all the sites with observation records within a 500 m radius) and 21 sites without such records. And those eDNA detections were from twelve out of 31 river systems in the entire river basin. A Bayesian, multiscale occupancy model supported high eDNA detectability among those sites. These results suggest that the eDNA assay can efficiently estimate the presence of reproductive area of the terrestrial toad even from a distant downstream of the watershed, and that it provides a powerful means of detecting new reproductive area and monitoring further spread of invasive species.

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