cell monolayers
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Aboutaleb Amiri ◽  
Romain Mueller ◽  
Amin Doostmohammadi

Abstract The presence and significance of active topological defects is increasingly realised in diverse biological and biomimetic systems. We introduce a continuum model of polar active matter, based on conservation laws and symmetry arguments, that recapitulates both polar and apolar (nematic) features of topological defects in active turbulence. Using numerical simulations of the continuum model, we demonstrate the emergence of both half- and full-integer topological defects in polar active matter. Interestingly, we find that crossover from active turbulence with half- to full-integer defects can emerge with the coexistence region characterized by both defect types. These results put forward a minimal, generic framework for studying topological defect patterns in active matter which is capable of explaining the emergence of half-integer defects in polar systems such as bacteria and cell monolayers, as well as predicting the emergence of coexisting defect states in active matter.

Radoslaw Bednarek

Cell monolayers, including endothelial and epithelial cells, play crucial roles in regulating the transport of biomolecules to underlying tissues and structures via intercellular junctions. Moreover, the monolayers form a semipermeable barrier across which leukocyte transmigration is tightly regulated. The inflammatory cytokines can disrupt the epithelial and endothelial permeability, thus the reduced barrier integrity is a hallmark of epithelial and endothelial dysfunction related with numerous pathological conditions, including cancer-related inflammation. Therefore, the assessment of barrier function is critical in in vitro models of barrier-forming tissues. This review summarizes the commercially available in vitro systems used to measure the permeability of cellular monolayers. The presented techniques are separated in two large groups: macromolecular tracer flux assays, and electrical impedance measurement-based permeability assays. The presented techniques are briefly described and compared.

2022 ◽  
Francois Chesnais ◽  
Jonas Hue ◽  
Errin Roy ◽  
Marco Branco ◽  
Ruby Stokes ◽  

Endothelial cells (EC) are heterogeneous across and within tissues, reflecting distinct, specialised functions. EC heterogeneity has been proposed to underpin EC plasticity independently from vessel microenvironments. However, heterogeneity driven by contact-dependent or short-range cell-cell crosstalk cannot be evaluated with single cell transcriptomic approaches as spatial and contextual information is lost. Nonetheless, quantification of EC heterogeneity and understanding of its molecular drivers is key to developing novel therapeutics for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and for revascularisation in regenerative medicine. Here, we developed an EC profiling tool (ECPT) to examine individual cells within intact monolayers. We used ECPT to characterise different phenotypes in arterial, venous and microvascular EC populations. In line with other studies, we measured heterogeneity in terms of cell cycle, proliferation, and junction organisation. ECPT uncovered a previously under-appreciated single-cell heterogeneity in NOTCH activation. We correlated cell proliferation with different NOTCH activation states at the single cell and population levels. The positional and relational information extracted with our novel approach is key to elucidating the molecular mechanisms underpinning EC heterogeneity.

Amy A. Sutton ◽  
Clayton W. Molter ◽  
Ali Amini ◽  
Johanan Idicula ◽  
Max Furman ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 1934578X2110704
Naoki Murata ◽  
Saki Keitoku ◽  
Hideo Miyake ◽  
Reiji Tanaka ◽  
Toshiyuki Shibata

Among the phlorotannins of seaweed polyphenols, eckols which have a dibenzodioxin linkage are known to have various physiological functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intestinal epithelial absorption of eckols using Caco-2 cell monolayers of the small intestinal membrane model. Each compound permeated from the apical (AP) side to the basolateral (BL) side in the monolayers was identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. In the transport assays using five types of eckols (eckol, fucofuroeckol A, phlorofucofuroeckol A, dieckol, and 8,8'-bieckol), only the monomeric eckol showed limited transepithelial absorption with relatively small apparent permeability values (0.30  ±  0.04  ×  10−8 cm/s). Analyzing the Hanks’ balanced salt solution in the receiver on the BL side showed that phloroglucinol was detected in all experimental sections using eckols, and it's concentration increased with time over the course of the incubation. The other molecules corresponding to the unconjugated and conjugated metabolites of eckols were not detected in the AP and BL sides through the assays. These results suggest that eckols, including monomeric eckol, may be decomposed into phloroglucinol in the intestinal epithelium and the resulting phloroglucinol permeates to the BL side.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3578
Geetha Samak ◽  
Rupa Rao ◽  
Radhakrishna Rao

Osmotic stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many gastrointestinal diseases. Lactobacillus casei and epidermal growth factor (EGF) effects on the osmotic stress-induced epithelial junctional disruption and barrier dysfunction were investigated. Caco-2 cell monolayers were exposed to osmotic stress in the presence or absence of L. casei or EGF, and the barrier function was evaluated by measuring inulin permeability. Tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction integrity were assessed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The role of signaling molecules in the L. casei and EGF effects was determined by using selective inhibitors. Data show that pretreatment of cell monolayers with L. casei or EGF attenuates osmotic stress-induced TJ and adherens junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. EGF also blocked osmotic stress-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling. U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), the MAP kinase inhibitor, blocked EGF-mediated epithelial protection from osmotic stress. In contrast, the L. casei-mediated epithelial protection from osmotic stress was unaffected by U0126, AG1478 (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK1/2 inhibitor), or SB202190 (P38 MAP kinase inhibitor). On the other hand, Ro-32-0432 (PKC inhibitor) blocked the L. casei-mediated prevention of osmotic stress-induced TJ disruption and barrier dysfunction. The combination of EGF and L. casei is more potent in protecting the barrier function from osmotic stress. These findings suggest that L. casei and EGF ameliorate osmotic stress-induced disruption of apical junctional complexes and barrier dysfunction in the intestinal epithelium by distinct signaling mechanisms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Na Qi ◽  
Shangqian Zhang ◽  
Xiantai Zhou ◽  
Wenjuan Duan ◽  
Duan Gao ◽  

AbstractThe integrin αvβ3 receptor and Lactoferrin receptor (LfR) are over-expressed in both cerebral microvascular endothelial cells and glioma cells. RGD tripeptide and Lf can specifically bind with integrin αvβ3 receptor and LfR, respectively. In our study, RGD and Lf dual-modified liposomes loaded with docetaxel (DTX) were designed to enhance the brain targeting effect and treatment of glioma. Our in vitro studies have shown that RGD-Lf-LP can significantly enhance the cellular uptake of U87 MG cells and human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) when compared to RGD modified liposomes (RGD-LP) and Lf modified liposomes (Lf-LP). Free RGD and Lf competitively reduced the cellular uptake of RGD-Lf-LP, in particular, free RGD played a main inhibitory effect on cellular uptake of RGD-Lf-LP in U87 MG cells, yet free Lf played a main inhibitory effect on cellular uptake of RGD-Lf-LP in hCMEC/D3 cells. RGD-Lf-LP can also significantly increase penetration of U87 MG tumor spheroids, and RGD modification plays a dominating role on promoting the penetration of U87 MG tumor spheroids. The results of in vitro BBB model were shown that RGD-Lf-LP-C6 obviously increased the transport of hCMEC/D3 cell monolayers, and Lf modification plays a dominating role on increasing the transport of hCMEC/D3 cell monolayers. In vivo imaging proved that RGD-Lf-LP shows stronger targeting effects for brain orthotopic gliomas than that of RGD-LP and Lf-LP. The result of tissue distribution confirmed that RGD-LF-LP-DTX could significantly increase brain targeting after intravenous injection. Furthermore, RGD-LF-LP-DTX (a dose of 5 mg kg−1 DTX) could significantly prolong the survival time of orthotopic glioma-bearing mice. In summary, RGD and LF dual modification are good combination for brain targeting delivery, RGD-Lf-LP-DTX could enhance brain targeting effects, and is thus a promising chemotherapeutic drug delivery system for treatment of glioma. Graphical abstract

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