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Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 342
Ekkachai Martwong ◽  
Santi Chuetor ◽  
Jatupol Junthip

Cationic organic pollutants (dyes and pesticides) are mainly hydrosoluble and easily contaminate water and create a serious problem for biotic and abiotic species. The elimination of these dangerous contaminants from water was accomplished by adsorption using cyclodextrin nanosponges. These nanosponges were elaborated by the cross-linking between 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and β-cyclodextrin in the presence of poly (vinyl alcohol). Their physicochemical characteristics were characterized by gravimetry, acid-base titration, TGA, 13C NMR, ATR-FTIR, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and Stereomicroscopy. The BP5 nanosponges displayed 68.4% yield, 3.31 mmol/g COOH groups, 0.16 mmol/g β-CD content, 54.2% swelling, 97.0% PQ removal, 96.7% SO removal, and 98.3% MG removal for 25 mg/L of initial concentration. The pseudo-second-order model was suitable for kinetics using 180 min of contact time. Langmuir isotherm was suitable for isotherm with the maximum adsorption of 120.5, 92.6, and 64.9 mg/g for paraquat (PQ), safranin (SO), and malachite green (MG) adsorption, respectively. Finally, the reusability performance after five regeneration times reached 94.1%, 91.6%, and 94.6% for PQ, SO, and MG adsorption, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Changjin Jiang ◽  
Ting Zhang ◽  
Shuhui Li ◽  
Zhaoguang Yang

Abstract Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB composites were prepared using an ionotropic gelation method. Various techniques were used to analyze the morphology, structure, and property of the adsorbents, including SEM, EDS, FT-IR, XPS, and zeta potential. Compared with Fe(III)-chitosan, Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB was more effective for As(V) adsorption at a wide range of pH (3–8). The adsorption of As(V) onto Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB could reach equilibrium in 20 min, and their maximum adsorption capacities were 33.85 and 31.69 mg g‒1, respectively. The adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model (R2=0.998 and 0.992), whereas the adsorption isotherms was fitted well by the Freundlich model (R2=0.963 and 0.987). The presence of H2PO4− significantly inhibited the adsorption of As(V) onto Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB, and humic acid also led to a slight decrease in As(V) adsorption by Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB. Over 94% of As(V) at the initial concentration of no more than 5 mg L−1 was removed from real water by the two adsorbents. 1% (w/v) NaOH solution was determined to be the most suitable desorption agent. Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB still maintained their initial adsorption capacities after five adsorption-desorption cycles. Based on different characterization results, both electrostatic attraction and surface complexation mechanisms played important roles in As(V) adsorption on Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 212
Hongyan Li ◽  
Zhijun Chen ◽  
Yifan Mu ◽  
Ruolan Ma ◽  
Laxi Namujila ◽  

Horisenbada, prepared by the soaking, steaming, and baking of millets, is a traditional Mongolian food and is characterized by its long shelf life, convenience, and nutrition. In this study, the effect of processing on the starch structure, textural, and digestive property of millets was investigated. Compared to the soaking treatment, steaming and baking significantly reduced the molecular size and crystallinity of the millet starch, while baking increased the proportion of long amylose chains, partially destroyed starch granules, and formed a closely packed granular structure. Soaking and steaming significantly reduced the hardness of the millets, while the hardness of baked millets is comparable to that of raw millet grains. By fitting digestive curves with a first-order model and logarithm of the slope (LOS) plot, it showed that the baking treatment significantly reduced the digestibility of millets, the steaming treatment increased the digestibility of millets, while the soaked millets displayed a similar digestive property with raw millets, in terms of both digestion rate and digestion degree. This study could improve the understanding of the effects of processing on the palatability and health benefits of Horisenbada.

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. C112-C127
Mahadevan Ganesh ◽  
Stuart Collin Hawkins ◽  
Nino Kordzakhia ◽  
Stefanie Unicomb

We present an efficient Bayesian algorithm for identifying the shape of an object from noisy far field data. The data is obtained by illuminating the object with one or more incident waves. Bayes' theorem provides a framework to find a posterior distribution of the parameters that determine the shape of the scatterer. We compute the distribution using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a Gibbs sampler. The principal novelty of this work is to replace the forward far-field-ansatz wave model (in an unbounded region) in the MCMC sampling with a neural-network-based surrogate that is hundreds of times faster to evaluate. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our algorithm by constructing the distributions, medians and confidence intervals of non-convex shapes using a Gaussian random circle prior. References Y. Chen. Inverse scattering via Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Inv. Prob. 13 (1997), pp. 253–282. doi: 10.1088/0266-5611/13/2/005 D. Colton and R. Kress. Inverse acoustic and electromagnetic scattering theory. 4th Edition. Vol. 93. Applied Mathematical Sciences. References C112 Springer, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-30351-8 R. DeVore, B. Hanin, and G. Petrova. Neural Network Approximation. Acta Num. 30 (2021), pp. 327–444. doi: 10.1017/S0962492921000052 M. Ganesh and S. C. Hawkins. A reduced-order-model Bayesian obstacle detection algorithm. 2018 MATRIX Annals. Ed. by J. de Gier et al. Springer, 2020, pp. 17–27. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-38230-8_2 M. Ganesh and S. C. Hawkins. Algorithm 975: TMATROM—A T-matrix reduced order model software. ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 44.9 (2017), pp. 1–18. doi: 10.1145/3054945 M. Ganesh and S. C. Hawkins. Scattering by stochastic boundaries: hybrid low- and high-order quantification algorithms. ANZIAM J. 56 (2016), pp. C312–C338. doi: 10.21914/anziamj.v56i0.9313 M. Ganesh, S. C. Hawkins, and D. Volkov. An efficient algorithm for a class of stochastic forward and inverse Maxwell models in R3. J. Comput. Phys. 398 (2019), p. 108881. doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2019.108881 L. Lamberg, K. Muinonen, J. Ylönen, and K. Lumme. Spectral estimation of Gaussian random circles and spheres. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 136 (2001), pp. 109–121. doi: 10.1016/S0377-0427(00)00578-1 T. Nousiainen and G. M. McFarquhar. Light scattering by quasi-spherical ice crystals. J. Atmos. Sci. 61 (2004), pp. 2229–2248. doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<2229:LSBQIC>2.0.CO;2 A. Palafox, M. A. Capistrán, and J. A. Christen. Point cloud-based scatterer approximation and affine invariant sampling in the inverse scattering problem. Math. Meth. Appl. Sci. 40 (2017), pp. 3393–3403. doi: 10.1002/mma.4056 M. Raissi, P. Perdikaris, and G. E. Karniadakis. Physics-informed neural networks: A deep learning framework for solving forward and inverse problems involving nonlinear partial differential equations. J. Comput. Phys. 378 (2019), pp. 686–707. doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2018.10.045 A. C. Stuart. Inverse problems: A Bayesian perspective. Acta Numer. 19 (2010), pp. 451–559. doi: 10.1017/S0962492910000061 B. Veihelmann, T. Nousiainen, M. Kahnert, and W. J. van der Zande. Light scattering by small feldspar particles simulated using the Gaussian random sphere geometry. J. Quant. Spectro. Rad. Trans. 100 (2006), pp. 393–405. doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2005.11.053

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Bashir Kurfi Babangida ◽  
Roslan Abdul Hakim ◽  
Hussin Bin Abdullah

PurposeThe goal of this paper is to validate the second-order model for the economic welfare scale in the context of violence. This study also aims to assess the relationship between the dimensions of the economic welfare scale’ declining food consumption and loss of income and the overall latent construct and assess the second-order model’s goodness of fit using appropriate fit indices.Design/methodology/approachThe study is cross-sectional with a sample of 600 households from the violent zone, Northwest Nigeria. The data collected was used for confirmatory factor analysis, second-order model evaluation and model fit evaluation.FindingsThe second-order model for the economic welfare scale is valid and reliable; the dimensions significantly affect the formation of the overall construct. The model’s goodness of fit fulfilled the relevant fit indices.Research limitations/implicationsThe study offers researchers and policymakers practical insights into how each dimension influences the latent operational construct. It, therefore, encompasses replication in all the remaining modules.Practical implicationsThe findings offer practical insight to policymakers in designing policies for promoting long-term peace structures and developing mechanisms to assist those who have suffered the greatest economic welfare losses due to violence in Nigeria.Social implicationsThe findings form an essential tool to assess the economic welfare effect in violently affected territories at the micro-level.Originality/valueThe outcomes are ground-breaking by validating the second-order model for the economic welfare scale. And established dimension influences over the overall latent variable.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 391
Jesús Alfredo Araujo-León ◽  
Rolffy Ortiz-Andrade ◽  
Efrén Hernández-Baltazar ◽  
Emanuel Hernández-Núñez ◽  
Julio César Rivera-Leyva ◽  

This study was performed to evaluate and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters between two dosage formulations of hesperidin and naringenin: mixture and tablet. Our objective was to determine that the flavonoid tablet does not significantly modify the pharmacokinetic parameters compared with the mixture. For this study, we administered 161 mg/kg of either mixture (Mix-160) or tablet composed of hesperidin and by intragastric administration. Blood microsamples were collected from tail vein up to 24 h. Serum flavonoid extraction was performed by solid phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS of triple quadrupole (QqQ). Serum concentration vs. time plot showed that data fitted for a first-order model. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by a noncompartmental model. The results showed that the absorption constant is higher than the elimination constant. The first concentration was found at five minutes, and minimal concentration at 24 h after administration, suggesting a enterohepatic recirculation phenomena and regulation of liver cytochromes’ activity. We did not find meaningful differences between the pharmacokinetic parameters of both samples. We concluded that tablet form did not interfere with the bioavailability of hesperidin and naringenin, and it could be a suitable candidate for developing a drug product.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Carla Calixta Calva Jiménez ◽  
Liliana Valentina Pinedo Fernández ◽  
Cristiano E. Rodrigues Reis

Carbonaceous and calcareous materials are commonly used as amendments to decrease the Cd mobility in contaminated soils. This study evaluated the effect of amendments applied to cocoa seedlings in the greenhouse, considering the mobilization of soil cadmium toward the seedlings as the main response. The experimental conditions considered soil artificially contaminated with Cd at a concentration of 50 mg Cd kg−1 and applications of amendments in different treatments with the presence of charcoal dust and calcium carbonate. The charcoal was characterized by microscopy and by adsorption tests, and it proved to be a material with macropores, with a maximum capacity of 8.06 mg Cd g−1 and favorable kinetic behavior according to the adjustment of the data obtained to the pseudo-second-order model. The results also showed that the application of liming decreased the mobility of Cd toward the seedlings, with the liming combined with charcoal leading to the absence of Cd in the cocoa seedlings, considering a residual concentration of Cd in the soil of 35 mg Cd kg−1. The results, although limited to a small scale, demonstrated the possibility of applying low-cost and easy-to-handle amendments for the control of Cd in cocoa plantations.

Pam Krone ◽  
Ross Clark ◽  
Jason Adelaars ◽  
Mason Leandro ◽  
Alex Henson ◽  

Abstract Woodchip bioreactors are capable of removing nitrate from agricultural runoff and subsurface tile drain water, alleviating human health hazards and harmful discharge to the environment. Water pumped from agricultural tile drain sumps to nearby ditches or channels could be cost effectively diverted through a woodchip bioreactor to remove nitrate prior to discharge into local waterways. Sizing the bioreactor to achieve targeted outlet concentrations within a minimum footprint is important to minimizing cost. Determining the necessary bioreactor size should involve a hydrological component as well as reaction type and rates. We measured inflow and outflow nitrate concentrations in a pumped open-channel woodchip bioreactor over a 13-month period and used a tanks-in-series approach to model hydrology and estimate parameter values for reaction kinetics. Both zero-order and first-order reaction kinetics incorporating the Arrhenius equation for temperature dependence were modeled. The zero-order model fit the data better. The rate coefficients (k = 17.5 g N m−3 day−1 and theta = 1.12 against Tref = 20 °C) can be used for estimating the size of a woodchip bioreactor to treat nitrate in agricultural runoff from farm blocks on California's central coast. We present an Excel model for our tanks-in-series hydrology to aid in estimating bioreactor size.

2022 ◽  
Marco Pizzoli ◽  
Francesco Saltari ◽  
Giuliano Coppotelli ◽  
Franco Mastroddi

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