morphological traits
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2022 ◽  
Vol 261 ◽  
pp. 107371
Samuel Henrique Kamphorst ◽  
Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior ◽  
Omar Vergara-Diaz ◽  
Adrian Gracia-Romero ◽  
Jose A. Fernandez-Gallego ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 109 ◽  
pp. 103383
Pierre Ganault ◽  
Sandra Barantal ◽  
Sylvain Coq ◽  
Stephan Hättenschwiler ◽  
Shéhérazade Lucas ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 3-25
O. A. Tikhonova ◽  
N. O. Shabliuk ◽  
T. A. Gavrilenko ◽  
S. E. Dunaeva ◽  
G. V. Talovina

In the framework of the program initiated at the N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), nomenclatural standards of five domestic black currant cultivars have been prepared. The present paper presents nomenclatural standards of these five cultivars bred at VIR: ‘Binar’, ‘Veloy’, ‘Peterburzhenka’, ‘Poeziya’ and ‘Trilena’. Plant morphological traits and breeding characters of these cultivars are described. Iinformation is provided on the formation and development of the VIR black currants collection at the Pavlovsk Experiment Station of VIR.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 527
Agnieszka Krzymińska ◽  
Barbara Frąszczak ◽  
Monika Gąsecka ◽  
Zuzanna Magdziak ◽  
Tomasz Kleiber

The main focus of the study was to determine the content of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and organic acids in the flowers of Tagetes patula ‘Petite Gold’ and ‘Petite Orange’. The growth of the plants was assessed depending on the cultivation conditions. The above plants were illuminated with white light, whereas the ‘Petite Gold’ ones with white light enhanced with blue or red light. Both cultivars grew in a two-level-mineral compounds organic substrate. The research showed that the French marigold flowers were rich in phenolic compounds and organic acids. The ‘Petite Gold’ flowers had more bioactive compounds compared with the ‘Petite Orange’ flowers. Three flavonoids, 10 phenolic acids and seven organic acids were found in the ‘Petite Gold’ flowers. The artificial lighting used during the cultivation of the plants showed diversified influence on the content of organic compounds in their flowers. The measurements of the plants’ morphological traits and the number of inflorescences showed that illumination with red light resulted in a better effect. Large plants with numerous inflorescences grew in the substrate with a lower content of nutrients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Eric Aaron ◽  
Joshua Hawthorne-Madell ◽  
Ken Livingston ◽  
John H. Long

To fully understand the evolution of complex morphologies, analyses cannot stop at selection: It is essential to investigate the roles and interactions of multiple processes that drive evolutionary outcomes. The challenges of undertaking such analyses have affected both evolutionary biologists and evolutionary roboticists, with their common interests in complex morphologies. In this paper, we present analytical techniques from evolutionary biology, selection gradient analysis and morphospace walks, and we demonstrate their applicability to robot morphologies in analyses of three evolutionary mechanisms: randomness (genetic mutation), development (an explicitly implemented genotype-to-phenotype map), and selection. In particular, we applied these analytical techniques to evolved populations of simulated biorobots—embodied robots designed specifically as models of biological systems, for the testing of biological hypotheses—and we present a variety of results, including analyses that do all of the following: illuminate different evolutionary dynamics for different classes of morphological traits; illustrate how the traits targeted by selection can vary based on the likelihood of random genetic mutation; demonstrate that selection on two selected sets of morphological traits only partially explains the variance in fitness in our biorobots; and suggest that biases in developmental processes could partially explain evolutionary dynamics of morphology. When combined, the complementary analytical approaches discussed in this paper can enable insight into evolutionary processes beyond selection and thereby deepen our understanding of the evolution of robotic morphologies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 98 (1) ◽  
pp. 13-21
Wilson J. E. M. Costa ◽  
Axel M. Katz

A new species of the catfish genus Trichomycterus is described from the Rio Paraíba do Sul, south-eastern Brazil. This species exhibits some morphological character states that are unique amongst congeners, including a robust opercle and a long interopercle with numerous odontodes (50–60 opercular and 90–100 interopercular), a black bar on the basal portion of the caudal fin and a dark brown flank with a well delimited dorsal yellow stripe. It also exhibits some morphological traits that are uncommon amongst congeners, such as the presence of nine pectoral-fin rays. The presence of a shallow hyomandibular outgrowth and a ventrally expanded pre-opercular ventral flap suggests that this species is closely related to T. melanopygius, T. pradensis and T. tete. The new species also differs from T. melanopygius, T. pradensis and T. tete by having an emarginate caudal fin and a single median supra-orbital pore S6. Anecdotal evidence suggests that T. largoperculatus and T. pradensis have migratory habits, a condition not previously reported for eastern South American trichomycterines.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Azadeh Rezapour ◽  
Marika Truu ◽  
Martin Maddison ◽  
Gristin Rohula-Okunev ◽  
Arvo Tullus ◽  

Peatland drainage based on ditch systems is a widely used forestry management practice in the boreal and hemiboreal forests to improve tree growth. This study investigated the morphological variation in absorptive roots (first- and second-order roots) across the distance gradient from the ditch with four sampling plots (5, 15, 40, and 80 m) in six drained peatland forests dominated by Downy birch and Norway spruce. The dominating tree species had a significant effect on the variation in absorptive root morphological traits. The absorptive roots of birch were thinner with a higher specific root area and length (SRA and SRL), higher branching intensity (BI), and lower root tissue density (RTD) than spruce. The distance from the ditch affected the absorptive root morphological traits (especially SRA and RTD), but this effect was not dependent on tree species and was directionally consistent between birch and spruce. With increased distance from the ditch (from plot 5 to plot 80), the mean SRA increased by about 10% in birch and 5% in spruce; by contrast, the mean RTD decreased by about 10% in both tree species, indicating a potential shift in nutrient foraging. However, soil physical and chemical properties were not dependent on the distance from the ditch. We found a species-specific response in absorptive root morphological traits to soil properties such as peat depth, pH, and temperature. Our results should be considered when evaluating the importance of morphological changes in absorptive roots when trees acclimate to a changing climate.

Anand Kumar ◽  
Lokendra Singh ◽  
Prashant Kaushik

: Using line × tester analysis, the current research analyses parental genotypes and their combinations in normal conditions and identifies the genes influencing yield characteristics. In the present study, 15 diverse genotypes, including 10 lines, 5 testers, and 50 F1s hybrids, were evaluated for 13 morphological and 2 biochemical traits. A suitable location was taken to study the effect of 15 characters. The results exposed that ability mean squares were significant for all studied additive and non-additive components. In this direction, the general combining ability of PBW-343, DBW-39, K-402, K-1317, KRL-210, and K-68 were higher than the remaining parents. For morphological traits like yield, the top five crosses were described based on SCA effects, namely, HD-3086 × HD-3171, K-402 × K-9107, K-1317 × K-9107, HD-2967 × K-0307 and K-402 × K-68 in F1 generation. In addition, the high value of heritability was estimated for plant height (77.32%), spike length (32.26%), biological yield/plant (59.52%), and grain yield/plant (68.76%). However, the moderate values of heritability were estimated for days to maturity (22.78%) and phenol color reaction (18.00%). The higher genetic advance was not found for recorded characters; however, a moderate genetic advance was recorded for grain yield per plant (13.15%) and harvest index (11.72%). High heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance was recorded for two characters grain yield per plant and harvest index in F1 and F2 generations.

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