nitrogen concentration
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zihao Cao ◽  
Xiaotong Shen ◽  
Xujing Wang ◽  
Baohua Zhu ◽  
Kehou Pan ◽  

Microalgae are considered promising resources for producing a variety of high-value-added products, especially for lipids and pigments. Alkalophilic microalgae have more advantages than other microalgae when cultured outdoors on a large scale. The present study investigated the comprehensive effects of different nitrogen concentrations on fucoxanthin (Fx), lipids accumulation and the fatty acid profile of the alkaliphilic microalgae Nitzschia sp. NW129 to evaluate the potential for simultaneous production of Fx and biofuels. Fx and Lipids amassed in a coordinated growth-dependent manner in response to various concentrations, reaching 18.18 mg g–1 and 40.67% dry weight (DW), respectively. The biomass of Nitzschia sp. NW129 was 0.58 ± 0.02 g L–1 in the medium at the concentration of 117.65 mM. The highest productivities of Fx (1.44 mg L–1 d–1) and lipid (19.95 ± 1.29 mg L–1 d–1) were obtained concurrently at this concentration. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl esters revealed excellent biofuel properties with an appropriate value of the degree unsaturation (49.97), cetane number (62.72), and cold filter plugging point (2.37), which met the European standards for biofuel production (EN14214). These results provided a reliable strategy for further industrialization and comprehensive production of biofuel and Fx by using the alkaliphilic microalgal Nitzschia sp. NW129.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jicheng Yang ◽  
Ning Du ◽  
Wei Jiang ◽  
Chenzhe Liu

With the rapid development of the Internet of Things, 5G, and communication technologies, the growth of various types of data has shown an exponential trend. Edge computing technology provides users with almost unlimited computing power through a large number of high-performance servers in the data center. It is one of the important solutions for big data analysis and processing. Volleyball has caused a great wave in China as early as the 1960s, but people pay little attention to the physical quality of volleyball players. At the same time, in the medical field, it is difficult to give a clear value to the athlete’s protein requirement. Therefore, this article aims to observe the specific values of protein metabolism in volleyball at different levels of protein nutrition. By designing controlled experiments, then these rats under three nutrient levels of protein were observed and protein metabolism was analyzed after volleyball. The results of the study show that volleyball exercise can reduce the nitrogen balance and gastrocnemius nitrogen content. The nitrogen balance of the 17% group decreased from 388 mg/day before exercise to 336 mg/day, and the gastrocnemius nitrogen content decreased by up to 5.2%; serum urea nitrogen concentration and liver nitrogen content are increased, indicating the enhancement of protein catabolism. Different protein nutrition levels have different effects on protein metabolism during volleyball. The protein intake level of 17% is more conducive to resist the protein decomposition caused by volleyball. It can be seen that, based on edge computing technology, the influence factors of protein nutrition level on protein metabolism during volleyball sports can be well explored, and the research results are also very valuable.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Nana Han ◽  
Baozhong Zhang ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Zhigong Peng ◽  
Qingyun Zhou ◽  

Global climate change and the spread of COVID-19 have caused widespread concerns about food security. The development of smart agriculture could contribute to food security; moreover, the targeted and accurate management of crop nitrogen is a topic of concern in the field of smart agriculture. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) spectroscopy has demonstrated versatility in the rapid and non-destructive estimation of nitrogen in summer maize. Previous studies focused on the entire growth season or early stages of summer maize; however, systematic studies on the diagnosis of nitrogen that consider the entire life cycle are few. This study aimed to: (1) construct a practical diagnostic model of the nitrogen life cycle of summer maize based on ground hyperspectral data and UAV multispectral sensor data and (2) evaluate this model and express a change in the trend of nitrogen nutrient status at a spatiotemporal scale. Here, a comprehensive data set consisting of a time series of crop biomass, nitrogen concentration, hyperspectral reflectance, and UAV multispectral reflectance from field experiments conducted during the growing seasons of 2017–2019 with summer maize cultivars grown under five different nitrogen fertilization levels in Beijing, China, were considered. The results demonstrated that the entire life cycle of summer maize was divided into four stages, viz., V6 (mean leaf area index (LAI) = 0.67), V10 (mean LAI = 1.94), V12 (mean LAI = 3.61), and VT-R6 (mean LAI = 3.94), respectively; moreover, the multi-index synergy model demonstrated high accuracy and good stability. The best spectral indexes of these four stages were GBNDVI, TCARI, NRI, and MSAVI2, respectively. The thresholds of the spectral index of nitrogen sufficiency in the V6, V10, V12, VT, R1, R2, and R3–R6 stages were 0.83–0.44, −0.22 to −5.23, 0.42–0.35, 0.69–0.87, 0.60–0.75, 0.49–0.61, and 0.42–0.53, respectively. The simulated nitrogen concentration at the various growth stages of summer maize was consistent with the actual spatial distribution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Mily Yolanda Ramírez Quiñones ◽  
Alberto Martin Medina Villacorta ◽  
Ritza Consuelo Collas Alva ◽  
Jaime Braulio Cahuana Flores ◽  
Andrea Rosario Pari Soto ◽  

The research deals with nitrogen doses and sowing densities in peas. The objective was to determine which nitrogen dose and planting density obtained the highest yield. The methodology is based on applied research; Therefore, the statistical model of the Completely Random Block Design was used, which consisted of 3 blocks and 6 treatments. The doses were applied at 17 days 1/2 N, 100% P2O5 and 100% K2O and 62 days after sowing 1/2 N, it was evaluated from sowing to harvest and the data were processed by analysis of variance of two factors and Duncan, took leaf samples for foliar analysis and determined the total amount of nitrogen used. It was determined that T5 stood out in stem length with 128.42 cm, commercial yield with 12.53 tn/ha, T4 in weight of pods with 620 g, number of pods per plant with 48, T6 in nitrogen concentration with 6.60 g/ 100 g of dry matter and T5 in the amount of nitrogen used with 154.3 kg/ha that obtained the highest yield. It is concluded that the higher dose of nitrogen and less distance that is T5 obtained higher performance exceeding by 24.52% in relation to T1.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Heliang He ◽  
Lan Yu ◽  
Xiaocheng Yang ◽  
Lin Luo ◽  
Jia Liu ◽  

The performance of Rumex nepalensis, an important medicinal herb, varies significantly among subalpine grasslands, shrublands and forest ecosystems in southwestern China. Plant–soil feedback is receiving increasing interest as an important driver influencing plant growth and population dynamics. However, the feedback effects of soils from different ecosystems on R. nepalensis remain poorly understood. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to identify the effects of different soil sources on the photosynthesis and biomass of R. nepalensis. R. nepalensis was grown in soils collected from the rooting zones of R. nepalensis (a grassland soil, RS treatment), Hippophae rhamnoides (a shrub soil, HS treatment), and Picea asperata (a forest soil, PS treatment). The chlorophyll contents, net photosynthetic rates, and biomasses of R. nepalensis differed significantly among the three soils and followed the order of RS > HS > PS. After soil sterilization, these plant parameters followed the order of RS > PS > HS. The total biomass was 16.5 times higher in sterilized PS than in unsterilized PS, indicating that the existence of soil microbes in P. asperata forest ecosystems could strongly inhibit R. nepalensis growth. The root to shoot biomass ratio of R. nepalensis was the highest in the sterilized PS but the lowest in the unsterilized PS, which showed that soil microbes in PS could change the biomass allocation. Constrained redundancy analysis and path analysis suggested that soil microbes could impact the growth of R. nepalensis via the activities of soil extracellular enzymes (e.g., β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG)) in live soils. The soil total soluble nitrogen concentration might be the main soil factor regulating R. nepalensis performance in sterilized soils. Our findings underline the importance of the soil microbes and nitrogen to R. nepalensis performance in natural ecosystems and will help to better predict plant population dynamics.

Sheikh Alif Ali ◽  
Anuar Abu Bakar ◽  
Wan Nurdiyana Wan Mansor ◽  
Amir Syawal Kamis ◽  
Mohamad Nor Khasbi Jarkoni ◽  

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 266
Sebastian Fryska ◽  
Jolanta Baranowska

In order to study the suitability of the S-phase layers as the interlayer for Cr2N chromium nitride coatings, a number of composite coatings were deposited by the reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) method on austenitic steel substrates with various initial surface conditions (as delivered and polished) and their corrosion resistance was assessed. Coatings with S-phase interlayer were deposited at three different nitrogen contents in the working atmosphere (15%, 30%, and 50%), which influenced the nitrogen concentration in the S-phase. Coatings with chromium, as a traditional interlayer to improve adhesion, and uncoated austenitic stainless steel were used as reference materials. Detailed microstructural and phase composition studies of the coatings were carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (LM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and were discussed in the context of results of corrosion tests carried out with the use of the potentiodynamic polarization method conducted in a 3% aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl). The performed tests showed that the electrochemical potential of the S-phase/Cr2N composite coatings is similar to that of Cr/Cr2N coatings. It was also observed that the increase in the nitrogen content in the S-phase interlayer causes an increase in the polarization resistance of the S-phase/Cr2N composite coating. Moreover, with a higher nitrogen content in the S-phase interlayer, the polarization resistance of the S-phase/Cr2N coating is higher than for the Cr/Cr2N reference coating. All the produced composite coatings showed better corrosion properties in relation to the uncoated austenitic stainless steel.

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