Relay intercropping is considered a valuable agroecological practice to increase and stabilize crop yields while ensuring the provision of several ecosystem services as well as sustainability and resilience to changing climatic conditions. However, farmers are still reluctant in the use of intercropping practices since there is a huge knowledge gap regarding the time of sowing, sowing ratio, crop stand density, and cultivar choice. In this study, we carried out a 3-year field experiment in Central Italy to assess the effect of relay intercropping on the agronomic performance and competitiveness of winter durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Minosse) and spring lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. cv. Elsa) under a low-input management system, comparing different crop stand types (monocrop vs. intercrop) and target plant densities (350 plants m2—full dose vs. 116 plants m2—1/3 dose). The results revealed that intercropping increased grain yield compared to monocropping: significantly (p < 0.0001) against both monocrops in 2021 and non-significantly against durum wheat in 2019 and 2020. Yield advantage in both intercropping systems ranged between 164 and 648%. Durum wheat competitiveness was stronger in 2019 and 2021, while lentil was the most competitive component in 2020. Intercropping favored P accumulation in durum wheat shoots. There was no difference in grain yield of both crops between the highly- and lowly-dense system in 2020 and 2021. Both intercropping strategies were as effective as mechanical hoeing in controlling weeds and proved beneficial in stabilizing lentil productivity. Further economic analysis capturing the additional costs incurred in intercropping and mechanical weeding would highlight the magnitude of profitability of these systems.
Introduction. Durum wheat is vital for high-quality pasta production. The present research tested the high technological potential of durum wheat varieties developed in the Saratov region. The research objective was to study the effect of the quality of durum wheat on the quality of pasta.
Study objects and methods. The study featured durum wheat of the following varieties: Saratovskaya Zolotistaya, Valentina, Nik, Krasnokutka 13, Luch 25, Pamyati Vasilchuka, Bezenchukskaya 182 and Annushka. The experiment involved an original PSL-13 press for standard spaghetti with a diameter of 1.8 mm. The content of protein, raw gluten, and their quality were determined by standard methods. The cooking properties of the pasta were evaluated according to the method developed in the South-Eastern Federal Agricultural Research Center.
Results and discussion. The indicators of raw gluten and protein are known to correlate. The samples of Saratovskaya Zolotistaya and Luch 25 had a high protein content of 15.3 and 15.6%, respectively, as well as a high content of raw gluten (33.2 and 35.1%, respectively). The raw gluten of Saratov varieties proved to be much better than in the control samples. The indicator of microSDs sedimentation was 30–36 mm. The strength of spaghetti followed the increase in crude gluten (33–35%) and protein (15.3–15.6%), which is typical of this type of pasta. The strength, coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.98), and sharing force (R2 = 0.92) depended on the protein content.
Conclusion. The study established the following optimal selection criteria for durum wheat varieties to be used in strong spaghetti production: virtuosity – 80%, raw gluten – 33–35%, protein content – 5–7% higher than normal, raw gluten – 72–80 units.
Durum wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in Morocco. The development of high-yielding varieties of durum wheat is one of the major goals of breeding programs in Morocco. Crop genetic diversity should play an essential role in this context. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variation among 280 durum wheat accessions conserved at the Moroccan Gene Bank by using twelve agro-morphological characters. All accessions are planted in field conditions and arranged in augmented design. The results showed a large variability among the durum wheat accessions. Analysis of variance demonstrated significant to highly significant differentiation between the accessions for the most traits. The number of plants at the emergence stage, the biomass of the plant at the flowering stage, the chlorophyll content, and the number of spikes showed high genetic advance coupled with high heritability (broad sense). Moreover, highly significant coefficients of correlation were revealed between agro-morphological characters offering the possibility of direct or indirect selection. The first two axes of the principal component analysis explained 45% of the total variation and showed that Moroccan landraces and North American cultivars shared similar morphological characters. However, Moroccan cultivars have shown better agronomic characters. This important agro-morphological variation should be utilized as a gene pool in durum wheat improvement to develop novel varieties with high productivity and the best quality.
The vitreousness of grain is an important trait taken into account by the state standards of many countries when determining its quality class. When creating new cultivars, this trait is controlled at all stages of breeding. The article presents the results of studying the vitreousness of grain cultivars of Samara Research Institute of Agriculture, related to the 4 stages of breeding covering the periods - 1957-1990 (stage I), 2003-2004 (stage II), 2007-2008 (stage III), 2012-2018 (stage IV). The study was carried out on the experimental field of Samara Research Institute of Agriculture during 2012-2020. Experimental plots with an accounting area of 20.0 m2 were placed in randomized blocks. Vitreousness was determined by the percentage of vitreous grains on the endosperm section in refined grain samples taken in 3 field replicates. The evaluation of the data obtained was carried out on the basis of 2-factor, one-way dispersion and correlation analyzes, parameters of stability and responsiveness according to the methods of Kilchevsky, Khotyleva, Eberhart-Russell, Khangildin, Nettevich. The dispersion of grain vitreousness was determined by environmental conditions – 61.2%, genotype factors and genotype/environmental interactions – 9.3% and 19.0%, respectively. Progress in breeding relative to the first stage was observed at the 2nd and 4th stages and was absent at the 3rd stage. According to the absolute values of vitreousness (91.8-94.3%), 4 cultivars were distinguished - Bezenchukskaya zolotistaya, Bezenchukskaya krepost, Bezenchukskaya nivaand Bezenchukskaya 210, belonging to the 4th stage. Values close to these (89.2-89.6%) were noted in the varieties of the 2nd stage - Bezenchukskaya stepnaya and Pamyaty Chekhovicha. Successful breeding for the vitreousness of durum wheat grain is associated with an improvement in the parameters of the stability of the formation of a trait in a variety of environmental conditions. Reliable genotypic correlations of glassiness, grain yield and macaroni color show the effectiveness of simultaneous selection for these traits. The absence of significant correlations of grain vitreousness with vegetation parameters, and quality, suggests the possibility of obtaining the necessary recombinations in the selection process. Genotypic correlation coefficients show the possibility of breeding productive cultivars with a high vitreousness of grain and a varied combination of parameters of the growing season and grain quality. Cultivars of the 4th stage, Bezenchukskaya zolotistaya and Bezenchukskaya krepost, were proposed as a initial material in breeding for grain vitreousness
Background: This study was conducted during the 2020/2021 cropping season at Setif Agricultural Experimental Station, it aims to assess the efficiency of using numerical image analysis (NIA) in the selection of durum wheat genotypes in semi-arid areas. Methods: The genetic materials used in this study consist of 11 advanced lines and 4 genotypes of which 3 are local landraces used as control to evaluate their performance, the genotypes tested were sown in a randomized block design (RDB) with three replications. each plot consisted of 6 lines of 10 m long spaced of 0.2 m witdth makes 12 m2 as plot area.
Result: Analysis of variance showed that all the parameters measured numerically (senescence and total reflectance) had a very high genotypic significance. The chlorophyll content at full heading showed a very highly significant genotypic effect. Thousand kernels weight, number of spikes per meter square, number of days to heading and plant height had a significant genotypic effect. The correlation study showed that all senescence parameters were significantly correlated. A significant and negative correlation was observed between chlorophyll contents; average of velocity and total reflectance. Grain yield was highly and significantly correlated with thousand kernels weight and number of spikes per meter square. Number of spikes per meter square was significantly and positively correlated with average of velocity and negatively correlated with sum of temperatures at mid-senescence. Number of days to heading was significantly and negatively correlated with senescence average and maximum of senescence average. A significant correlation was observed between plant height and sum of temperatures at mid-senescence.