geochemical modelling
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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 542
Benjamin Udo Emmel ◽  
Kamila Maria Gawel ◽  
Mohammad Hossain Bhuiyan ◽  
Malin Torsæter ◽  
Laura Edvardsen

Reservoir formation waters typically contain scaling ions which can precipitate and form mineral deposits. Such mineral deposition can be accelerated electrochemically, whereby the application of potential between two electrodes results in oxygen reduction and water electrolysis. Both processes change the local pH near the electrodes and affect the surface deposition of pH-sensitive minerals. In the context of the plugging and abandonment of wells, electrochemically enhanced deposition could offer a cost-effective alternative to the established methods that rely on setting cement plugs. In this paper, we tested the scale electro-deposition ability of six different formation waters from selected reservoirs along the Norwegian continental shelf using two experimental setups, one containing CO2 and one without CO2. As the electrochemical deposition of scaling minerals relies on local pH changes near the cathode, geochemical modelling was performed to predict oversaturation with respect to the different mineral phases at different pH values. In a CO2-free environment, the formation waters are mainly oversaturated with portlandite at pH > 12. When CO2 was introduced to the system, the formation waters were oversaturated with calcite. The presence of mineral phases was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of the mineral deposits obtained in the laboratory experiments. The geochemical-modelling results indicate several oversaturated Mg-bearing minerals (e.g., brucite, dolomite, aragonite) in the formation waters but these, according to XRD results, were absent in the deposits, which is likely due to the significant domination of calcium-scaling ions in the solution. The amount of deposit was found to be proportional to the concentration of calcium present in the formation waters. Formation waters with a high concentration of Ca ions and a high conductivity yielded more precipitate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 107334
Xinyi Wendy Tian ◽  
Erin Furnell ◽  
Erin R. Bobicki

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Mojca Loncnar ◽  
Ana Mladenovič ◽  
Vesna Zalar Serjun ◽  
Marija Zupančič ◽  
Hans A. van der Sloot

Old metallurgical dumps across Europe represent a loss of valuable land and a potential threat to the environment, especially to groundwater (GW). The Javornik electric arc furnace (EAF) and ladle slag heap, situated in Slovenia, was investigated in this study. The environmental impact of the slag heap was evaluated by combining leaching characterization tests of landfill samples and geochemical modelling. It was shown that throughout the landfill the same minerals and sorptive phases control the leaching of elements of potential concern, despite variations in chemical composition. Although carbonation of the disposed steel slags occurred (molar ratio CO3/(Ca+Mg) = 0.53) relative to fresh slag, it had a limited effect on the leaching behaviour of elements of potential concern. The leaching from the slag heaps had also a limited effect on the quality of the GW. A site-specific case, however, was that leachates from the slag heap were strongly diluted, since a rapid flow of GW fed from the nearby Sava River was observed in the landfill area. The sampling and testing approach applied provides a basis for assessing the long-term impact of release and is a good starting point for evaluating future management options, including beneficial uses for this type of slag.

2021 ◽  
Ahmed M. S. Elgendy ◽  
Simone Ricci ◽  
Elena I. Cojocariu ◽  
Claudio Geloni

Abstract Dynamic-geochemical model is a powerful instrument to evaluate the geochemical effects on CO2storage capacity, injectivity and long-term containment. The study objective is to apply an integrated multi-step workflow to a carbon capture and storage (CCS) candidate field (offshore), namely hereinafter H field. From experimental analyses, a comprehensive real data-tailored reactive transport model (RTM) has been built to capture the dynamics and the geochemical phenomena (e.g., water vaporization, CO2solubility, mineral alteration) occurring during and after the CO2injection in sedimentary formations. The proposed integrated workflow couples lab activities and numerical simulations and it is developed according to the following steps: Mineralogical-chemical characterization (XRD, XRF and SEM-EDX experimental techniques) of field core samples; Data elaboration and integration to define the conceptual geochemical model; Synthetic brine reconstruction by means of 0D geochemical models; Numerical geochemical modelling at different complexity levels. Field rocks chosen for CO2injection have been experimentally characterized, showing a high content of Fe in clayey, micaceous and carbonate mineralogical phases. New-defined, site-specific minerals have been characterized, starting from real XRD, XRF and SEM-EDX data and by calculation of their thermochemical parameters with a proprietary procedure. They are used to reconstruct synthetic formation water chemical composition (at equilibrium with both rock mineralogy and gas phase), subsequently used in RTM. CO2injection is simulated using 2D radial reactive transport model(s) built in a commercial compositional reservoir simulator. The simulations follow a step-increase in the complexity of the model by adding CO2solubility, water vaporization and geochemical reactions. Geochemical processes impact on CO2storage capacity and injectivity is quantitatively analyzed. The results show that neglecting the CO2solubility in formation water may underestimate the max CO2storage capacity in H field by around 1%, maintaining the same pressure build-up profile. Sensitivities on the impact of formation water salinity on the CO2solubility are presented. In a one thousand years’ time-scale, changes in reservoir porosity due to mineral alteration, triggered by CO2-brine-rock interactions, seem to be minimal in the near wellbore and far field. However, it has been seen that water vaporization with the associated halite precipitation inclusion in the simulation models is recommended, especially at high-level of formation brine salinity, for a reliable evaluation of CO2injectivity related risks. The proposed workflow provides a new perspective in geochemical application for CCS studies, which relies on novel labs techniques (analyses automation), data digitalization, unification and integration with a direct connection to the numerical models. The presented procedure can be followed to assess the geochemical short-and long-term risks in carbon storage projects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 109 ◽  
pp. 103272
Marcos Antonio Klunk ◽  
Sudipta Dasgupta ◽  
Mohuli Das ◽  
Rommulo Vieira Conceição ◽  
Soyane Juceli Siqueira Xavier ◽  

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