The objective of this study was to determine the effects of centrally administered taurine on rectal temperature, behavioral responses and brain amino acid metabolism under isolation stress and the presence of co-injected corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Neonatal chicks were centrally injected with saline, 2.1 pmol of CRF, 2.5 μmol of taurine or both taurine and CRF. The results showed that CRF-induced hyperthermia was attenuated by co-injection with taurine. Taurine, alone or with CRF, significantly decreased the number of distress vocalizations and the time spent in active wakefulness, as well as increased the time spent in the sleeping posture, compared with the saline- and CRF-injected chicks. An amino acid chromatographic analysis revealed that diencephalic leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, glutamate, asparagine, alanine, β-alanine, cystathionine and 3-methylhistidine were decreased in response to taurine alone or in combination with CRF. Central taurine, alone and when co-administered with CRF, decreased isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and cysteine, but increased glycine concentrations in the brainstem, compared with saline and CRF groups. The results collectively indicate that central taurine attenuated CRF-induced hyperthermia and stress behaviors in neonatal chicks, and the mechanism likely involves the repartitioning of amino acids to different metabolic pathways. In particular, brain leucine, isoleucine, cysteine, glutamate and glycine may be mobilized to cope with acute stressors.
Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) is a physiological response to acute stressors in mammals, shown as an increase in core body temperature, with redirection of blood flow from the periphery to vital organs. Typical temperature assessment methods for rodents are invasive and can themselves elicit SIH, affecting the readout. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a promising non-invasive alternative, if shown to accurately identify and quantify SIH. We used in-house developed software ThermoLabAnimal 2.0 to automatically detect and segment different body regions, to assess mean body (Tbody) and mean tail (Ttail) surface temperatures by IRT, along with temperature (Tsc) assessed by reading of subcutaneously implanted PIT-tags, during handling-induced stress of pair-housed C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice of both sexes (N = 68). SIH was assessed during 10 days of daily handling (DH) performed twice per day, weekly voluntary interaction tests (VIT) and an elevated plus maze (EPM) at the end. To assess the discrimination value of IRT, we compared SIH between tail-picked and tunnel-handled animals, and between mice receiving an anxiolytic drug or vehicle prior to the EPM. During a 30 to 60 second stress exposure, Tsc and Tbody increased significantly (p < 0.001), while Ttail (p < 0.01) decreased. We did not find handling-related differences. Within each cage, mice tested last consistently showed significantly higher (p < 0.001) Tsc and Tbody and lower (p < 0.001) Ttail than mice tested first, possibly due to higher anticipatory stress in the latter. Diazepam-treated mice showed lower Tbody and Tsc, consistent with reduced anxiety. In conclusion, our results suggest that IRT can identify and quantify stress in mice, either as a stand-alone parameter or complementary to other methods.
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse causes irreversible damage to the central nervous system and leads to psychiatric symptoms including depression. Notably, METH-induced hyperthermia is a crucial factor in the development of these symptoms, as it aggravates METH-induced neurotoxicity. However, the role of hyperthermia in METH-induced depression-like behaviors needs to be clarified. In the present study, we treated mice with different doses of METH under normal (NAT) or high ambient temperatures (HAT). We found that HAT promoted hyperthermia after METH treatment and played a key role in METH-induced depression-like behaviors in mice. Intriguingly, chronic METH exposure (10 mg/kg, 7 or 14 days) or administration of an escalating-dose (2 ∼ 15 mg/kg, 3 days) of METH under NAT failed to induce depression-like behaviors. However, HAT aggravated METH-induced damage of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, reaction to oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Molecular hydrogen acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and has been shown to have preventive and therapeutic applicability in a wide range of diseases. Coral calcium hydride (CCH) is a newly identified hydrogen-rich powder which produces hydrogen gas gradually when exposed to water. Herein, we found that CCH pretreatment significantly attenuated METH-induced hyperthermia, and administration of CCH after METH exposure also inhibited METH-induced depression-like behaviors and reduced the hippocampal synaptic plasticity damage. Moreover, CCH effectively reduced the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and decreased malondialdehyde, TNF-α and IL-6 generation in hippocampus. These results suggest that CCH is an efficient hydrogen-rich agent, which has a potential therapeutic applicability in the treatment of METH abusers.
Metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) displays a poor disease prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of 39%. Chemotherapy has emerged as the mainstream treatment against small clusters of cancer cells but poses more risks than benefits for metastatic cells due to the non-specificity and cytotoxicity. To overcome these obstacles, we conjugated antibodies specific for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), a prognostic biomarker of SCC, to iron–gold bimetallic nanoparticles (FeAu NPs) and explored the capability of this complex to target and limit SSC cell growth via magnetic field-induced hyperthermia. Our results showed that 4.32 ± 0.79 nm sized FeAu NPs were superparamagnetic in nature with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 5.8 emu/g and elevated the media temperature to 45 °C, confirming the prospect to deliver hyperthermia. Furthermore, conjugation with MMP-1 antibodies resulted in a 3.07-fold higher uptake in HSC-3 (human tongue squamous cell carcinoma) cells as compared to L929 (fibroblast) cells, which translated to a 5-fold decrease in cell viability, confirming SCC targeting. Finally, upon magnetic stimulation, MMP-1-FeAu NPs conjugate triggered 89% HSC-3 cellular death, confirming the efficacy of antibody-conjugated nanoparticles in limiting SCC growth. The synergistic effect of biomarker-specific antibodies and magnetic nanoparticle-induced hyperthermia may open new doors towards SCC targeting for improved disease prognosis.
Background: Medical staff working in COVID-19 wards must be isolated and observed for 14 days upon the occurrence of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia (PSH). Such measures could result in great psychological pressure and incur considerable losses in anti-disease resources.
Methods: In this study, the psychological conditions of medical staff were assessed over a period of 7 days in COVID-19 isolation wards of the People’s Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China and 7 days after leaving the wards by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). The relevant factors of PSH were analyzed by t- and rank sum tests.
Results: A total of 10 females with an average body temperature of 37.36 ± 0.07 ℃ were included in the PSH group. Another 103 females and 53 males with an average body temperature of 36.66 ± 0.21 ℃ were included in the control group. The PSQI, GAD-7, PHQ-9, IES-R, and PCL-C scores of the PSH group were higher than those of the control group. Binary regression analysis indicated that the odds ratios of the PSQI and GAD-7 scores were 12.98 and 3.81, respectively (P < 0.05). After positive intervention, the body temperature and psychological scale scores of both groups returned to normal ranges.
Conclusion: Working in COVID-19 wards could cause susceptible medical staff to suffer from PSH. Female sex, somnipathy, and GAD are independent risk factors of PSH.
Cholecystokinin (CCK) increases core body temperature via CCK2 receptors when administered intracerebroventricularly (icv). The mechanisms of CCK-induced hyperthermia are unknown, and it is also unknown whether CCK contributes to the fever response to systemic inflammation. We studied the interaction between central CCK signaling and the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. Body temperature was measured in adult male Wistar rats pretreated with intraperitoneal infusion of the nonselective COX enzyme inhibitor metamizol (120 mg/kg) or a selective COX-2 inhibitor, meloxicam or etoricoxib (10 mg/kg for both) and, 30 minutes later, treated with icv CCK (1.7 µg/kg). In separate experiments, CCK-induced neuronal activation (with and without COX inhibition) was studied in thermoregulation- and feeding-related nuclei with c-Fos immunohistochemistry. CCK increased body temperature by ~0.4°C from 10 min post-infusion, which was attenuated by metamizol. CCK reduced the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the median preoptic area (by ~70%) but increased it in the dorsal hypothalamic area and in the rostral raphe pallidus (by ~50% in both); all these changes were all completely blocked with metamizol. In contrast, CCK-induced satiety and neuronal activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus were not influenced by metamizol. CCK-induced hyperthermia was also completely blocked with both selective COX-2 inhibitors studied. Finally, the CCK2 receptor antagonist YM022 (10 µg/kg; icv) attenuated the late phases of fever induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (10 µg/kg; intravenously). We conclude that centrally administered CCK causes hyperthermia through changes in the activity of "classical" thermoeffector pathways, and that the activation of COX-2 is required for the development of this response.