Heterogeneous Catalyst
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2022 ◽  
pp. 0958305X2110639
Author(s):  
Aparna Singh ◽  
Akhilesh Kumar Choudhary ◽  
Shailendra Sinha ◽  
Hitesh Panchal ◽  
Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni

Extensive consumption of fossil fuel has contributed to the worldwide decline of its reserves and detrimental effect on the environment. Therefore, it is essential to explore alternative option of fuel for diesel engine. The main objective of this research article is to optimize vibrations in a single-cylinder variable compression ratio diesel engine driven by Jatropha biodiesel blend. The heterogeneous catalyst (calcium oxide) is used to manufacture of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil by a process of transesterification. The optimization technique (Response Surface Methodology) has been employed to optimize root mean square acceleration of vibration by taking load, compression ratio (CR), and fuel injection pressure (FIP) as engine input parameters. Experiments were designed according to central composite design. The amplitude of the frequency domain signals is determined using Fast Fourier Transform and the influence of input parameters has been investigated in the frequency domain analysis of the vibration signatures. The adequacy and significance of the models have been checked by p-value and F value tests. Regression coefficients Adj. R2, R2, Pred. R2 were also found in acceptable range. The experimental outcome reveals that biodiesel yield of 81.6% was obtained at methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 12:1, reaction temperature of 65°C, reaction time of 3 h, and catalyst concentration of 5 wt%. Simultaneously, the model obtained a series of solutions based on the desirability criteria and proposed optimum setting of engine input parameters at a load of 2.59 kg, 17.94 CR, and 268.76 bar FIP for B30 blend. B30 blend generated root mean square acceleration of 4.46 m/s2 at above optimized conditions. A validation trial was conducted and the percentage of error for root mean square acceleration was found to be 2.3356% and 1.3039%, respectively, for B0 and B30 blend.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Medhat Elkelawy ◽  
Safaa El-din H. Etaiw ◽  
Ahmed Mohamed Radwan ◽  
Hitesh Panchal ◽  
Hagar Alm-Eldin Bastawissi

Abstract Nowadays, combustion technologies decarbonization, reduction of harmful emission, and improving thermal efficiency have gained more attention by using clean, sustainable, alternative, and reliable biofuels coupled with using nano particles technologies. Nano heterogeneous catalysts are new promising technologies for converting triglycerides (oil, fats,..etc) into biodiesel, which characterized with saving in the total cost of production. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano heterogeneous catalyst used to convert triglyceride represented in waste cooking oil (WCO) into FAME as bio-diesel, where bio-diesel yield fitted the ASTM. In the present research, the results show 95% as a maximum yield at optimum process conditions of 0.01 Wt.% TiO2 loading, 0.3 Wt.% NaoH, reaction temperature (60 ºC), reaction time (60 min), 10:1 methanol to oil volumetric percentage. Effect of mixing different percentage (35, and 70 ppm) of {[Cd (EIN)2(SCN)2]}, SCP 1, Cadmium (II coordination polymer as nanoparticle enhancer, with diesel fuel/biodiesel (60:40 v/v%) (D60B40) on the behavior of one-cylinder direct-injection diesel (DI) engine parameters were examined experimentally and analytically through RSM methodologies. The engine operating variables have been optimized by using CCD method to achieve an optimal BTE. Engine load and nano particles quantity were considered as process input variables to optimize BTE, UHC, and NOx emissions as engine responses. The quadratic regression models were significant and adequate statistically as indicated by the Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results from (RSM) optimizer indicated that BTE, NOx, and UHC have optimum values of 16.2605%, 544.9157 ppm, and 117.6023 ppm respectively, at 70 ppm of SCP 1 nanoparticles and 2.1919 Kw of break power as optimal predicted values. A validation examination was carried out and the percent of error was within the limit of 5%. BTE, UHC, and NOx have an error percentage of 2.05%, 1.03%, and 1.63%, respectively.


Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 307 ◽  
pp. 121759
Author(s):  
Shahabaldin Rezania ◽  
Saeideh Mahdinia ◽  
Bahareh Oryani ◽  
Jinwoo Cho ◽  
Eilhann E Kwon ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Yifei Chen ◽  
Yang Gao ◽  
Lingtao Wang ◽  
Hao Gong

Metal-organic framework which was composed of metal center and organic linkers possessing the similar structure with the homogeneous metal-complex catalyst for hydroformylation, thus it could be potentially used as the...


2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 1295-1301
Author(s):  
Elmustapha Ennesyry ◽  
Fathallaah Bazi ◽  
Bahija Mounir ◽  
M’hammed Elkouali Elkouali ◽  
Hassan Hannache ◽  
...  

Functionalized alkenes were successfully synthesized via a clean procedure in a short time by using a new recycled heterogeneous catalyst prepared from Moroccan oil shale, this catalyst is characterized by different technics such XRD, BET-BJH, MEB-EDS, and TGA, before it’s has been used in the Knoevenagel condensation between different aldehydes and active methylenes. The results showed that coupling the catalyst with ultrasound irradiations could improve the catalytic system in this transformation by achieving the products in a very short time, the results showed clearly that this catalyst could be considered as excellent recyclable support in Knoevenagel condensation.


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