Impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) is a nonlinear pump–probe spectroscopy technique particularly suitable to study vibrational intermolecular and intramolecular modes in complex systems. For the latter, recent studies of ISRS microscopy with low-energy laser sources have attracted attention for investigation of photosensitive or biological samples. Following this stream of interest, in this paper, we report an investigation on the relationship between femtosecond ISRS data and pump–probe Z-scan measurements, showing that the latter technique is capable of capturing the Kerr nonlinearities induced by the molecular vibrational modes. To this aim, firstly, spectrally filtered and Raman-induced Kerr ISRS signals were simultaneously acquired to determine the sample nonlinear response and to establish the reference data for the Z-scan analysis. Then, by adopting a suitable experimental arrangement to avoid thermo-optical effects, we were able to unambiguously observe the Raman-induced effects in Z-scan measurements, thus obtaining a consistent picture between ISRS and Z-scan for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Practical applications of the proposed method include calibrated measurements of the contribution of the internal (Raman) and external molecular modes to the nonlinear refractive index.
In ordinary public rooms, such as classrooms and offices, an absorbent ceiling is the typical first acoustic action. This treatment provides a good acoustic baseline. However, an improvement of specific room acoustic parameters, operating for specific frequencies, can be needed. It has been seen that diffusing elements can be effective additional treatment. In order to choose the right design, placement, and quantity of diffusers, a model to estimate the effect on the acoustics is necessary. This study evaluated whether an SEA model could be used for that purpose, particularly for the cases where diffusers are used in combination with an absorbent ceiling. It was investigated whether the model could handle different quantities of diffusing elements, varied diffusion characteristics, and varied installation patterns. It was found that the model was sensitive to these changes, given that the output from the model in terms of acoustic properties will be reflected by the change of diffuser configuration design. It was also seen that the absorption and scattering of the diffusers could be quantified in a laboratory environment: a reverberation chamber. Through the SEA model, these quantities could be transformed to a full-scale room for estimation of the room acoustic parameters.
Optomechanical wavelength up-conversion based on optical force and core-shell scattering effects are used to control light coupling between two waveguides. This system consists of two parallel optical waveguides with 20 µm lengths suspended on a silica substrate embedded with Ag/Si/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles. By mid-IR plane wave illumination with different intensities and different wavelengths on nanoparticles, scattering would increase and result in an improvement in attractive gradient optical force exerted on waveguides. Via bending waveguides toward each other, visible light propagating in the first waveguide would couple to another. PDMS as a polymer is used to reduce the required power for bending waveguides. Results reveal that when waveguides’ gap equilibrium is 400 nm and wavelengths of control and probe lights are 4.5 µm and 0.45 µm respectively, about 10.75 mW/µm2 power is needed to bend waveguides for total coupling of light between waveguides. The efficiency of the coupled waveguides system is %43.
A theory of the valley and spin Hall effects and resulting accumulation of the valley and spin polarization is developed for ultraclean channels made of two-dimensional semiconductors where the electron mean free path due to the residual disorder or phonons exceeds the channel width. Both ballistic and hydrodynamic regimes of the electron transport are studied. The polarization accumulation is determined by interplay of the anomalous velocity, side-jump and skew scattering effects. In the hydrodynamic regime, where the electron-electron scattering is dominant, the valley and spin current generation and dissipation by the electron-electron collisions are taken into account. The accumulated polarization magnitude and its spatial distribution depend strongly on the transport regime. The polarization is much larger in the hydrodynamic regime as compared to the ballistic one. Significant valley and spin polarization arises in the immediate vicinity of the channel edges due to the side-jump and skew scattering mechanisms.
Embedding nanostructures in organic solar cells (OSCs) is a well-known method to improve the absorption efficiency of the device by introducing the plasma resonance and scattering effects without increasing the active layer thickness. The introduction of nanostructures imposes greater demands on the optical analysis method for OSCs. In this paper, the generalized rigorous coupled-wave analysis (GRCWA) is presented to analyze and optimize the performance of coherent-incoherent hybrid organic solar cells (OSCs) with nanostructures. Considering the multiple reflections of light scattered within the glass substrate by the device, the correction vector g is derived, then the modified expressions for the field and absorption distribution in OSCs are provided. The proposed method is validated by comparing the simulated results of various structures with results obtained by the generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM) and the “equispaced thickness method” (ETM). The results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the number of simulations by at least half compared to the ETM while maintaining accuracy. With the proposed method, we discussed the device performance depending on the geometrical parameters of nanostructures, and the optimization and analysis are accomplished for single and tandem OSCs. After optimization based on the proposed method, the performance of OSCs are significantly improved, which further demonstrates the practicality of the method.
Digital light processing (DLP)-based 3D printing technology has the advantages of speed and precision comparing with other 3D printing technologies like extrusion-based 3D printing. Therefore, it is a promising biomaterial fabrication technique for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. When printing cell-laden biomaterials, one challenge of DLP-based bioprinting is the light scattering effect of the cells in the bioink, and therefore induce unpredictable effects on the photopolymerization process. In consequence, the DLP-based bioprinting requires extra trial-and-error efforts for parameters optimization for each specific printable structure to compensate the scattering effects induced by cells, which is often difficult and time-consuming for a machine operator. Such trial-and-error style optimization for each different structure is also very wasteful for those expensive biomaterials and cell lines. Here, we use machine learning to learn from a few trial sample printings and automatically provide printer the optimal parameters to compensate the cell-induced scattering effects. We employ a deep learning method with a learning-based data augmentation which only requires a small amount of training data. After learning from the data, the algorithm can automatically generate the printer parameters to compensate the scattering effects. Our method shows strong improvement in the intra-layer printing resolution for bioprinting, which can be further extended to solve the light scattering problems in multilayer 3D bioprinting processes.
The scattering phenomenon is known to be of great importance for the acoustic quality of a performance arts space. The scattering of sound can be achieved in different ways: it can be obtained by the presence of architectural and/or decorating elements inside a room (e.g., columns, statues), by the geometry and roughness of a surface (e.g., Quadratic Residue Diffuser (QRD)) and by the diffraction effect occurring when a sound wave hits the edges of an obstacle. This article deals with the surface scattering effects and the diffusion phenomenon only related to MDF and plywood panels tested by disposing the wells both horizontally and vertically. The test results undertaken inside a semi-reverberant room and inside a large reverberant room have been compared to highlight the success and the failure of the measuring methodologies. In detail, according to the existing standards and regulations (i.e., ISO 17497—Part 2), diffusion measurements have been undertaken on a few selected types of panel: two QRD panels (made of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) and plywood) with and without a smooth painted solid wood placed behind the QRD. The panels have been tested inside two rooms of different characteristics: a semi-anechoic chamber (Room A) and a large reverberant room (Room B). The volume size influenced the results that have been analyzed for both chambers, showing an overlap of reflections on panels tested inside Room A and a clear diffusion response for the panels tested inside Room B. In terms of the diffusion coefficient in all the octave bands between 125 Hz and 8 kHz, results should not be considered valid for panels tested in Room A because they were negatively impacted by extraneous reflections, while they are reliable for panels tested in Room B.
Electromagnetic scattering typically occurs when a change in the material properties is perceived by the propagating wave, that inevitably splits into a reflected and refracted wave to maintain the continuity of the field components at the interface between the two media. However, such a scattering phenomenon occurs also when the entire media suddenly switches its properties to other values at a certain instant of time, realizing the so-called temporal interface. After a temporal interface, a couple of waves, one reflected and one transmitted, starts to propagate in the new media with the same wavelength but at a different frequency. Exploiting the analogies and differences between spatial and temporal interfaces, in this contribution we present the temporal counterparts of conventional electromagnetic devices based on dielectric slabs and a cascade of them, i.e., the multilayered structures. We discuss about the analysis and design strategies for synthetizing the desired scattering response in both transmission and reflection and present the possible families of devices based on multi-switched temporal metamaterials that can be conceived.