Health And Well Being
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H. A. Adde ◽  
A. J. van Duinen ◽  
L. M. Sherman ◽  
B. C. Andrews ◽  
Ø. Salvesen ◽  

Abstract Background Any health care system that strives to deliver good health and well-being to its population relies on a trained workforce. The aim of this study was to enumerate surgical provider density, describe operative productivity and assess the association between key surgical system characteristics and surgical provider productivity in Liberia. Methods A nationwide survey of operation theatre logbooks, available human resources and facility infrastructure was conducted in 2018. Surgical providers were counted, and their productivity was calculated based on operative numbers and full-time equivalent positions. Results A total of 286 surgical providers were counted, of whom 67 were accredited specialists. This translated into a national density of 1.6 specialist providers per 100,000 population. Non-specialist physicians performed 58.3 percent (3607 of 6188) of all operations. Overall, surgical providers performed a median of 1.0 (IQR 0.5–2.7) operation per week, and there were large disparities in operative productivity within the workforce. Most operations (5483 of 6188) were categorized as essential, and each surgical provider performed a median of 2.0 (IQR 1.0–5.0) different types of essential procedures. Surgical providers who performed 7–14 different types of essential procedures were more than eight times as productive as providers who performed 0–1 essential procedure (operative productivity ratio = 8.66, 95% CI 6.27–11.97, P < 0.001). Conclusion The Liberian health care system struggles with an alarming combination of few surgical providers and low provider productivity. Disaggregated data can provide a high-resolution picture of local challenges that can lead to local solutions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 82 (4) ◽  
pp. 159-166
Jennifer Brady ◽  
Tanya L’heureux

Recent world events have shone a spotlight on the social and structural injustices that impact the lives, health, and well-being of individuals and communities under threat. Dietitians should be well positioned to play a role in redressing injustice through their individual and collective “response abilities”, that is, the combination of responsibility for and ability to be responsive to such injustices due to the varying privilege and power that dietitians have. However, recent research shows that dietitians report a lack of knowledge, skill, and confidence to take on such roles, and that dietetic education includes little knowledge- or skill-based learning that might prepare dietitians to do so. This primer aims to introduce readers to concepts that are fundamental to socially just dietetics practice, including privilege, structural competence, critical reflexivity, critical humility, and critical praxis. We assert that when implemented into practice and used to inform advocacy and activism these concepts enhance dietitians’ individual and collective response ability to redress injustice.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1942602X2110484
Ellen M. McCabe ◽  
Caroline Davis ◽  
Lauryn Mandy ◽  
Cindy Wong

The importance of students feeling connected in school cannot be overstated, as this perception is crucial to support their health and well-being. A lack of school connectedness can lead to adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including bully victimization. Numerous factors, including individual, social, and environmental, influence students’ perceived sense of school connectedness. School nurses are well positioned to establish and maintain school connectedness due to their knowledge, accessibility to students, and familiarity with the school environment. This article details the importance of school connectedness and describes the associations between school connectedness, bullying, and mental health. In addition, we offer recommendations geared toward school nurses regarding strengthening school connectedness and promoting a culture of care and inclusivity within school environments, especially salient in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (2) ◽  
pp. 5-9
Tatyana N. Ananyeva ◽  
Galina I. Ilyukhina ◽  
Yulia V. Sazonova

Human health and well-being largely depend on a sufficient standard of living, educational opportunities and participation in social and social life, and successful professional activities. It should be recognized that in the surrounding society it is in these areas of life that people with disabilities and disabilities are especially disadvantaged, but not neglected by society and the state. Currently, in the Russian Federation, the State programme Accessible Environment is being implemented to support and assist persons with disabilities and disabilities, with the aim of creating legal, economic and institutional conditions conducive to the integration of persons with disabilities into society and improving their quality of life. The programme contains three subprogrammes that are effectively implemented in modern society, namely: (1) Ensuring the accessibility of priority facilities and services in priority areas of life of persons with disabilities and other mobile populations; (2) Improvement of the system of comprehensive rehabilitation and habilitation of persons with disabilities; (3) Improvement of the state system of medical and social expertise. The organizers of the Abilimpix social movement were able to demonstrate to people with disabilities their individual capabilities and prospects for accessibility to all types, forms and means of obtaining knowledge and professional skills, their effective application in practice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 99
Panshuo Shen ◽  
Paul Slater

Occupational stress has been constantly rising among academics in universities globally, which affects their health and well-being. Although some studies reviewed occupational stress in academics, there has been less systematic evidence reviewed occupational stress of academic staff through the lens of the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping (TTSC). This integrative review aims to search, extract, appraise and synthesise recent evidence relating to occupational stress, coping strategies, health, and well-being of university academic staff. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) methodology provides a structure for searching and reporting the search outcomes. Primary studies relating to occupational stress, coping strategies, health, and well-being of academics in university published from 2010 onwards were selected from five databases, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science in June 2020. Keywords included &ldquo;stress&rdquo;, &ldquo;coping strategy&rdquo;, &ldquo;health&rdquo;, &ldquo;well-being&rdquo;, &ldquo;academics&rdquo; and &ldquo;university&rdquo; in various combinations. The boolean operators &ldquo;AND&rdquo; and &ldquo;OR&rdquo; were also used. 17 out of 682 articles were included in this review. Most studies reported academics experienced moderate to high level of stress, and the heavy workload was one of the main stressors. Both positive and negative coping methods were used by academics to cope with stress. Occupational stress can contribute to poor mental health and decreased well-being of academics. This review can help to understand the work phenomenon of university academics and improve their health and well-being, which in turn can contribute to satisfaction and productivity within the educational institutes.

2021 ◽  
pp. 136754942110557
Bridget Conor

In this article, I’ll outline the phenomenon of ‘cosmic wellness’ which is now visible across on- and offline spaces that promote health and well-being products and practices to women. Cosmic wellness is a broad constellation of media, discourse, imagery, materials and foods (including crystals, dust and herbs) produced primarily by white, wealthy women. On the one hand, cosmic wellness can be read as a digital food culture that offers healthy and potentially necessary responses to fiercely neoliberal modes of working and living. But conversely, it is framed as the newest example of narcissistic self-absorption and, more seriously, as unhealthy and dangerous. Cosmic wellness is founded on various beliefs, including the moral necessity of pursuing the optimisation of self and the power of markets to provide the ingredients, tools and practices to achieve it. It is connected to histories that chart the incorporation of New Age health and well-being practices into ‘mainstream’ forms of lifestyle production and consumption and the simultaneous derision of these practices, especially when used and promoted by women. But there is also something new about cosmic wellness, especially as it is visible online on platforms such as Instagram. In the article, I outline the key features of cosmic wellness and analyse its contemporary cultural purchase, using theories of digital food cultures, spiritual production and consumption, postfeminism and critical whiteness studies. The article then conducts empirical analysis of a series of Instagram posts from one prominent space in which cosmic wellness currently circulates: Gwyneth Paltrow’s lifestyle and wellness business Goop.

2021 ◽  
Vol 120 (830) ◽  
pp. 346-352
Christine Sargent

Across the Middle East, two key dynamics characterize disability rights movements: dynamism and fragility. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities accelerated regional recognition of disability as central to human development and social justice initiatives. New communication platforms, legislative interventions, and institutional capacity-building reflect currents of change and innovation—frequently driven by ground-up initiatives led by or in collaboration with disabled persons’ organizations. At the same time, the COVID-19 pandemic and protracted humanitarian crises pose threats to health and well-being across the region, with grave implications for disabled persons and their movements.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Juliana Thompson ◽  
Michael Hill ◽  
Lesley Bainbridge ◽  
Daniel Cowie ◽  
Emma Flewers

Purpose This paper aims to provide an evidence assessment and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the key characteristics of older people living in service-integrated housing (SIH) facilities and their “accommodation journey”. Design/methodology/approach A rapid evidence assessment was conducted: 22 research publications met the inclusion criteria and were analysed using narrative synthesis. Findings The quality of studies in this area is low, but consistency across components of the results of studies included in the review is apparent. Results suggest key characteristics of older people that drive moves into SIH are a decline in health, increased dependency, increased health service use and carer burden. Suggested key characteristics of SIH residents are high levels of health problems, dependency and health service use, but high self-reported health and well-being. Results indicate that the key driver for older people leaving SIH is a lack of workforce competency to manage further declines in health and dependency status. Research limitations/implications Current policy may not realise or account for the complex health and care needs of SIH residents. Investment into integrated care, robust community health services and workforce development to facilitate a comprehensive assessment approach may be required to support residents to remain in SIH and live well. Further longitudinal studies are required to map the progression of SIH residents’ health status in detail over time to provide an understanding of preventative and enablement support, development of care pathways and workforce planning and development requirements. Originality/value This evidence assessment is the first to consider the accommodation journey of older people residing in SIH.

2021 ◽  
Taylor R Thomas ◽  
Ashton J Tener ◽  
Ji Seung Yang ◽  
John F Strang ◽  
Jacob J Michaelson

Both sex and gender are characteristics that play a key role in risk and resilience in health and well-being. Current research lacks the ability to quantitatively describe gender and gender diversity, and is limited to endorsement of categorical gender identities, which are contextually and culturally dependent. A more objective, dimensional approach to characterizing gender diversity will enable researchers to advance the health of gender-diverse people by better understanding how genetic factors interact to determine health outcomes. To address this research gap, we leveraged the Gender Self-Report (GSR), a questionnaire that captures multiple dimensions of gender diversity. We then performed polygenic score associations with brain-related traits like cognitive performance, personality, and neuropsychiatric conditions. The GSR was completed by N = 818 independent adults with or without autism in the SPARK cohort, and GSR factor analysis identified two factors: Binary (divergence from gender presumed by designated sex to the opposite) and Nonbinary (divergence from male and female gender norms) Gender Diversity (BGD and NGD, respectively). We performed polygenic associations (controlling for age, sex, and autism diagnostic status) in a subset of N = 452 individuals and found higher polygenic propensity for cognitive performance was associated with greater BGD (B = 0.017, p = 0.049) and NGD (B = 0.036, p = 0.002), and higher polygenic propensity for educational attainment was also associated with greater NGD (B = 0.030, p = 0.015). We did not observe any significant associations with personality or neuropsychiatric polygenic scores in this sample. Overall, our results suggest cognitive processes and gender diversity share overlapping genetic factors, indicating the biological utility of the GSR while also underscoring the importance of quantitatively measuring gender diversity in health research contexts.

2021 ◽  
Barbara Lyn Galvez ◽  
Waraporn Kongsuwan ◽  
Savina O. Schoenhofer ◽  
Urai Hatthakit

Background: Understanding the true world of children needs a special method. Using aesthetic expressions through artworks with reflections assists nurse researchers in exploring children’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors in relation to their health and well-being. Objective: This article focuses on the use of aesthetic expressions as innovative data sources in a study of the lived worlds of children experiencing advanced cancer. Method: The use of aesthetic expressions in Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenology and aesthetics, by means of van Manen’s approach using draw and write, is examined as a suitable approach in a study of the lived worlds of children experiencing advanced cancer. Results: The aesthetic expressions through the Draw-and-Write method of data generation were well-suited to a hermeneutic phenomenological study involving the group of Filipino children living with advanced cancer. The children drew images and figures of themselves, their families, classmates, friends, and teachers in several places and events during the series of two days. The drawings showed their facial expressions, home, parents, hospital stay, school activities, extracurricular activities, and other daily activities. Conclusion: Aesthetic expression linked to art and connected to human experience drew the participants into different realms and expanded their perceptual capacities so that the fullness of the meaning of the experience was appreciated. The understanding of the experience through aesthetic expression provided sensitivity to and awareness of the variation of experience among children with advanced cancer. It is hoped that this paper can contribute to an understanding of aesthetic expressions as pathways to understanding and support health professionals as they embark on their goal of creating or restoring a comfortable relationship with children.  Funding: This study obtained a research scholarship grant from Thailand Education Hub for ASEAN Countries (TEH-AC).

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