healthy elderly
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Andreia Fuentes Santos ◽  
Marilia Moraes Queiroz Souza ◽  
Karoline Bach Pauli ◽  
Gustavo Ratti da Silva ◽  

Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieriin the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieriusing Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieriimproves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnierihave been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.

2022 ◽  
Linda Zhang ◽  
Miguel Calero ◽  
Miguel Medina ◽  
Bryan Strange

The APOE ϵ4 allele is the primary genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). A cardinal problem in determining APOE ϵ4's effect on cognition and brain structure in older individuals is dissociating prodromal changes — linked to increased AD risk — from potential phenotypic differences. To address this, we used cognitive and neuroimaging data from a large cohort of cognitively normal 69-86 year-olds with up to 8 yearly follow-ups to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal differences between APOE ϵ3/ϵ3 homozygotes and ϵ3/ϵ4 heterozygotes. Although we found a significant age-by-genotype interaction in right hippocampal volume, once our analyses were conditionalised by future diagnosis to account for prodromal mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, this effect was no longer observed. Likewise, longitudinally, rate of hippocampal atrophy was determined not by genotype, but by future diagnosis. Thus, we provide direct evidence in support of the prodromal hypothesis of APOE ϵ4 on brain structure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 666-670
Elis Noviati ◽  
Ima Sukmawati ◽  
Jajuk Kusumawaty

Elderly is an advanced stage of the life process decreasing the body's ability to adapt to the environment. Degenerative disease is a disease that occurs due to decreased organ function, including hypertension, rhematoid arthritis, stroke, diabetes mellitus. Various strategies are pursued to improve health status and reduce morbidity in the elderly. One of them is through physical activity that is in accordance with the physical condition of the elderly and is carried out regularly. In addition, increasing knowledge through counseling which aims to help the elderly make decisions and determine a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this activity is to improve the quality of life of the elderly. The method used is by doing elderly exercise with pre and post blood pressure checks so that it can be seen the significance of the benefits of exercise. In addition, counseling was carried out using lecture, discussion and question and answer methods. The target audience for this community service program is the elderly (elderly) in the Poskesdes Village of Benteng who are physically categorized as doing sports / physical activity for the elderly. The results of this activity show that the effectiveness of elderly gymnastics has an effect on reducing blood pressure. And from counseling, the results of the evaluation show that the elderly understand and understand the concept of healthy elderly people related to the pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (4) ◽  
pp. 863-873
Soojung Kim ◽  
Hyunjoo Choi

Objectives: In general, the incidence of Tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon increases with age, but studies on the difference in the incidence of TOT phenomenon according to the age of healthy elderly adults are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and resolution rate of the TOT, and to find out the change in performance according to the syllabic clues.Methods: Ninety-six healthy elderly people whose age range was between 65 and 84 years old participated in the study. Participants were divided into three groups: 55-64 years old, 65-74 years old, and 75-84 years old age range groups. The TOT task used 30 questions about celebrity naming organized by period and category.Results: First, there was a significant difference of the TOT rate by age group, and as the age increased, the TOT rate due to partial retrieval failure and total retrieval failure increased. Second, the rate of TOT response type that explained the celebrity’s occupation was the highest in all groups. Third, there were significant differences between groups in both the voluntary TOT resolution rate and the TOT resolution rate after providing the syllabic clue. The recovery rate after the syllabic clues decreased with increasing age.Conclusion: This study observed the difference in characteristics of TOT phenomenon in elderly adults according to age group and the importance of phonological clues in TOT phenomenon resolution.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Rumiko OKAMOTO ◽  
Mieko TANAKA ◽  
Katsuyoshi MIZUKAMI ◽  

Although it is well documented that exercising is good for the mental health and cognitive function as well as the physical condition in elderly people, exercising is difficult in elderly individuals with a low motor function. To develop an exercise program targeting elderly individuals unsuited for whole-body exercises, we assessed the effects of facial exercises on the mental health and mood in healthy elderly people. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 75, age range = 65-87 yrs) were randomly divided into a facial exercises group and a wait-listed control group. A facial exercises program of 30 min was given twice a week for 12 weeks. This program consisted of rhythmic facial movement, muscle stretching, facial yoga, and Tanden breathing. The GHQ-12 for mental health were administered to both groups before and after the 12-week study period. In addition, facial expression and EEG were measured. Fifty-three participants completed the protocol. In the intervention group, the GHQ-12, facial expression, and α wave in frontal lobe improved post-intervention. These results suggest that facial exercises are effective in improving the mental health, facial expression, α wave in frontal lobe of elderly people, and that exercises may be useful as a therapeutic modality in this population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 104-111
Maria Theresia Arie Lilyana ◽  
Made Indra Ayu Astarini

Background: Aging is the final phase in the human life cycle; elderly people are at risk to face the problem as an impact loss of their roles. Objective: This study aimed to know that spirituality has an impact on providing the ability to face and accept the changes that occur with age. Methods: This literature review aimed to find out the benefits of spirituality for healthy elderly lives. Data Sources: This study searched articles published between 2010 to 2020, full-text and free articles. The search keywords consisted of “function” and “spirituality” and “elderly”. Review Methods: This literature review was conducted using analysis of the selected articles based on the inclusion criteria such full-text articles that were discussed about the benefits of spirituality for the elderly, published in the last 10 years. Result: Spirituality has an impact on influencing the incidence of depression; the main source of support for physical and psychosocial health, increasing self-awareness that they are no longer young and death will surely come for them; source of life force; coping strategies that help overcome difficult times in the elderly’s life. Conclusion: Spirituality has a positive impact on the elderly in terms of physical and mental well-being.

Lizhen Zhu ◽  
Beiping Miao ◽  
Dagmara Dymerska ◽  
Magdalena Kuświk ◽  
Elena Bueno-Martínez ◽  

Familial colorectal cancer (CRC) is only partially explained by known germline predisposing genes. We performed whole genome sequencing in 15 Polish families of many affected individuals, without mutations in known CRC predisposing genes. We focused on loss-of-function variants and functionally characterized them. We identified a frameshift variant in the CYBA gene (c.246delC) in one family and a splice site variant in the TRPM4 gene (c.25-1 G>T) in another family. While both variants were absent or extremely rare in gene variant databases, we identified four additional Polish familial CRC cases and two healthy elderly individuals with the CYBA variant (odds ratio 2.46, 95% confidence interval 0.48-12.69). Both variants led to a premature stop codon and to a truncated protein. Functional characterization of the variants showed that knockdown of CYBA or TRPM4 depressed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LS174T and HT-29 cell lines. Knockdown of TRPM4 resulted in decreased MUC2 protein production. CYBA encodes a component in the NADPH oxidase system which generates ROS and controls, e.g., bacterial colonization in the gut. Germline CYBA variants are associated with early onset inflammatory bowel disease, supported with experimental evidence on loss of intestinal mucus barrier function due to ROS deficiency. TRPM4 encodes a calcium-activated ion channel, which in a human colonic cancer cell line controls calcium-mediated secretion of MUC2, a major component of intestinal mucus barrier. We suggest that the gene defects in CYBA and TRPM4 mechanistically involve intestinal barrier integrity through ROS and mucus biology, which converges in chronic bowel inflammation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Abraham B. Beckers ◽  
Ellen Wilms ◽  
Zlatan Mujagic ◽  
Béla Kajtár ◽  
Kata Csekő ◽  

Introduction: The world population is ageing, resulting in increased prevalence of age-related comorbidities and healthcare costs. Limited data are available on intestinal health in elderly populations. Structural and functional changes, including altered visceroperception, may lead to altered bowel habits and abdominal symptoms in healthy individuals and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Our aim was to explore age-related changes in gastrointestinal symptoms and underlying mechanisms.Methods: In total, 780 subjects (IBS patients n = 463, healthy subjects n = 317) from two separate studies were included. Subjects were divided into different age groups ranging from young adult to elderly. Demographics and gastrointestinal symptom scores were collected from all participants using validated questionnaires. A subset of 233 IBS patients and 103 controls underwent a rectal barostat procedure to assess visceral hypersensitivity. Sigmoid biopsies were obtained from 10 healthy young adults and 10 healthy elderly. Expression of the visceral pain-associated receptors transient receptor potential (TRP) Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) genes were investigated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence.Results: Both elderly IBS and healthy individuals showed significantly lower scores for abdominal pain (p < 0.001) and indigestion (p < 0.05) as compared to respective young adults. Visceral hypersensitivity was less common in elderly than young IBS patients (p < 0.001). Relative TRPA1 gene transcription, as well as TRPA1 and TRPV1 immunoreactivity were significantly lower in healthy elderly versus healthy young adults (p < 0.05).Conclusions: Our findings show an age-related decrease in abdominal pain perception. This may in part be related to decreased TRPA1 and/or TRPV1 receptor expression. Further studies are needed to reveal precise underlying mechanisms and the associations with intestinal health.

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