Service Provision
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Author(s):  
Juri Demuth ◽  
Hans W. Friederiszick ◽  
Steffen Reinhold

AbstractAfter earlier waves of privatization, local governments have increasingly taken back control of local service provisions in some sectors and countries and instead started providing those services themselves (reverse privatization). Using a unique panel dataset on the mode of service provision for solid waste collection for German municipalities that cover the years 2003, 2009, and 2015, we investigate the motives for reverse privatization. Our results show that—in deciding whether to insource or not—municipalities react to the cost advantages of private suppliers as well as to the competitive environment and municipal activity: there is more switching to insourcing in concentrated markets and in markets with horizontally or vertically related public services. Local interest groups influence this decision as well.


Author(s):  
Mary Goldberg ◽  
Mohammed Alharbi ◽  
Krithika Kandavel ◽  
Yohali Burrola-Mendez ◽  
Nancy Augustine ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 81-108
Author(s):  
Md Didarul Islam

There has been a relatively new dimension of development discourse to analyze the role of Faith Based Organizations (FBOs) in global development. In doing so, most of the academic literatures have addressed how FBOs positively contributed to the global development over the years. In contrast, there are some criticisms against the FBOs. This article attempts to elucidate three major criticisms against the FBOs including a. sectarian service provision, b. proselytization and c. terrorist financing. This article finds a mixed result arguing that there are limitations of FBOs in the concerned cases but those limitations do not reduce the significance of the FBOs in global development. Philosophy and Progress, Vol#63-64-; No#1-2; Jan-Dec 2018 P 81-108


2021 ◽  
Vol 44 ◽  
pp. 103178
Author(s):  
Shubham Bhoir ◽  
Priscilla Caliandro ◽  
Claudio Brivio

Author(s):  
Peter Biber ◽  
Fabian Schwaiger ◽  
Werner Poschenrieder ◽  
Hans Pretzsch

AbstractIn the field of assessing forest ecosystem service provision and biodiversity, there seems to be a gap between an existing large body of valuable expert knowledge and its application. We propose fuzzy logic evaluation systems as a contribution to closing that gap. With this method-focused pilot study, we explored the potential of fuzzy logic for assessing the provision of different ecosystem services in a simulation case study, covering a large forest landscape in Southern Germany. Based on expert knowledge and available literature, we designed a fuzzy logic evaluation system for biodiversity, and the ecosystem services balanced wood production, storm and bark beetle damage resistance, and recreation value. This evaluation system was applied to 100-year simulation outcomes for three contrasting forest management scenarios in the landscape of interest. While the results of the case study in general support the idea of a multifunctional forest management, fuzzy logic turned out pronouncedly useful as a method. This is due to its potential to make otherwise unused expert knowledge applicable and transparent in a formal evaluation process. Based on our results, we discuss the approach related to its potential for interdisciplinary integration of knowledge, for revealing tradeoffs and synergies, and participative planning processes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Author(s):  
Weiwei Lin ◽  
Tiansheng Huang ◽  
Xin Li ◽  
Fang Shi ◽  
Xiumin Wang ◽  
...  

In addition to the stationary mobile edge computing (MEC) servers, a few MEC surrogates that possess a certain mobility and computation capacity, e.g., flying unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and private vehicles, have risen as powerful counterparts for service provision. In this article, we design a two-stage online scheduling scheme, targeting computation offloading in a UAV-assisted MEC system. On our stage-one formulation, an online scheduling framework is proposed for dynamic adjustment of mobile users' CPU frequency and their transmission power, aiming at producing a socially beneficial solution to users. But the major impediment during our investigation lies in that users might not unconditionally follow the scheduling decision released by servers as a result of their individual rationality. In this regard, we formulate each step of online scheduling on stage one into a non-cooperative game with potential competition over the limited radio resource. As a solution, a centralized online scheduling algorithm, called ONCCO, is proposed, which significantly promotes social benefit on the basis of the users' individual rationality. On our stage-two formulation, we are working towards the optimization of UAV computation resource provision, aiming at minimizing the energy consumption of UAVs during such a process, and correspondingly, another algorithm, called WS-UAV, is given as a solution. Finally, extensive experiments via numerical simulation are conducted for an evaluation purpose, by which we show that our proposed algorithms achieve satisfying performance enhancement in terms of energy conservation and sustainable service provision.


Psichologija ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 64 ◽  
pp. 23-37
Author(s):  
Austėja Agnietė Čepulienė ◽  
Said Dadašev ◽  
Dovilė Grigienė ◽  
Miglė Marcinkevičiūtė ◽  
Greta Uržaitė ◽  
...  

The COVID-19 pandemic can influence the situation of suicide rates and mental health in rural regions even more than in major cities. The aim of the current study was to explore the functioning of mental health service provision during the COVID-19 pandemic through interviews with mental health professionals and other specialists who work with suicide prevention in rural areas. Thirty specialists were interviewed using a semi-structured interview format. The following codes were identified during the thematic analysis: providing help during the pandemic (mental health professionals and institutions adapted to the conditions of the pandemic, remote counselling makes providing help more difficult, the help is less reachable); help-seeking during the pandemic (people seek less help because of the pandemic, seeking remote help is easier, the frequency of help seeking didn’t change); the effects and governing of the pandemic situation (the pandemic can have negative effects on mental health; after the pandemic mental health might get worse; the governing of the pandemic situation in Lithuania could be more fluent). The current study reveals positive aspects of mental health professionals’ adaptivity during the pandemic, as well as severe problems which are related to the access to the mental health services during the COVID-19 pandemic.


2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (5) ◽  
pp. 887-898
Author(s):  
Mi Kyung Song ◽  
Jung Hee Kim ◽  
Eun-Jeong Han

2021 ◽  

Since the dawn of colonialism in Southern Africa, the province of the Eastern Cape emerged as the cradle of African resistance against colonial oppression. A closer look at the province reveals opportunities for progress and ultimate resurgence of economic and social development, yet conflated by a myriad of challenges. This book brings together different perspectives and realities of the post-apartheid Eastern Cape to provide an in-depth exploration of the developmental dilemmas that the province faces. This book provides insightful reflections on development and its sustainability some 25 years since democracy, and specifically focuses on sociological and demographic realities in the areas of migration and its impact on families. The book further grapples with the role of the state in developing culture and heritage in the province, pointing to fundamental and multiple challenges of deprivation, unemployment and subsequent community resilience in a variety of sectors including health and education. While it provides a historical analysis of contextual issues facing the province, the book also highlights the agency of the people of the Eastern Cape in confronting challenges in leadership, accountability, citizen participation and service provision. The book will be useful for development scholars and practitioners who are interested in understanding the state of the province, and similar settings, and the degree to which it has emerged from the shadows of its colonial and apartheid legacies.


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