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2022 ◽  
Paulina G. Eusebi ◽  
Natalia Sevane ◽  
Thomas O’Rourke ◽  
Manuel Pizarro ◽  
Cedric Boeckx ◽  

AbstractThe reactive type of aggression is regulated mostly by the brain’s prefrontal cortex; however, the molecular changes underlying aggressiveness in adults have not been fully characterized. We used an RNA-seq approach to investigate differential gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of bovines from the aggressive Lidia breed at different ages: young three-year old and adult four-year-old bulls. A total of 50 up and 193 down-regulated genes in the adult group were identified. Furthermore, a cross-species comparative analysis retrieved 29 genes in common with previous studies on aggressive behaviors, representing an above-chance overlap with the differentially expressed genes in adult bulls. We detected changes in the regulation of networks such as synaptogenesis, involved in maintenance and refinement of synapses, and the glutamate receptor pathway, which acts as excitatory driver in aggressive responses. The reduced reactive aggression typical of domestication has been proposed to form part of a retention of juvenile traits as adults (neoteny).

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 256-265
Sung-Seo Mo ◽  
Jin-Wook Kim ◽  
Hyoung-Seon Baik ◽  
Hai-Van Giap ◽  
Kee-Joon Lee

Objectives: This study was aimed to compare the histological pattern of bone modeling on either periodontal or periosteal side induced by lateral orthodontic tooth movement in different age groups. Material and Methods: A total of 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats (25 rats in the adult group – 52 weeks and 25 rats in the young group – 10 weeks) were utilized in this study. Each age group was classified into the control, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days groups (five rats in each) by the duration of experimental device application. A double-helical spring was produced using 0.014” stainless steel wire to provide 40 g lateral force to the left and right incisors. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) immunohistochemical staining, and Masson trichrome staining were performed; and the slides were subject to histological examination. Results: In 7 days, active bone modeling represented by the scalloped surface was observed on the periosteal side of the crestal and middle alveolus at the pressure side in the young group, while similar changes were observed only on the crestal area in the adult group. In the young group, the number of PCNA-positive cells increased significantly on the crestal area and middle alveolus on the 3, 7, and 14 day groups, with subsequent decrease at 21 days. In the adult group, PCNA-positive cells were localized on the crestal area throughout the period. In the young group, FGFR2-positive cells were observed mainly on the crestal and middle alveolus at 3, 7, and 14 days than the control group. In the adult group, these cells appeared on the crestal and middle alveolus in the 3 days group, but mainly on the crestal area at 14 days. In the young group, FGFR2-positive cells were observed on the crestal and middle alveolus on the 3, 7, and 14 days groups more than on the control group. In the adult group, these cells appeared on the crestal and middle alveolus in the 3 days group, but mainly on the crestal area in the 14 days group. In Masson trichrome stain, an increased number of type I collagen fibers were observed after helical spring activation in both age groups. Large resorption lacunae indicating undermining bone resorption were progressively present in both young and adult groups. Conclusion: According to these results, orthodontic tooth movement may stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation primarily on the periosteal side according to progressive undermining bone resorption on the periodontal side. This response may lead to prominent bone modeling during tooth movement in the young group, compared to the relatively delayed response in the adult group.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Chih-Kai Hong ◽  
Yu-Ju Lin ◽  
Ting-An Cheng ◽  
Chih-Hsun Chang ◽  
Kai-Lan Hsu ◽  

Abstract Purpose To compare the anterior translation and internal rotation of tibia on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between adult and adolescent patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Methods Patients who underwent isolated ACL reconstruction from January 2013 to May 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. The exclusion criteria included incomplete data, poor image quality, a prior ACL surgery, and concomitant fractures or other ligament injuries. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups based on their ages: an adult group (age > 19 years) and an adolescent group (15 to 19 years of age). Anterior tibial translation and femorotibial rotation were measured on MRI. A Student’s t-test was used for the statistical analysis comparing the adult and adolescent groups. Results A total of 365 patients (279 adults and 86 adolescents) were enrolled in the present study. The anterior tibial translation in the adult group (4.8 ± 4.4 mm) and the adolescent group (5.0 ± 4.2 mm) was not significantly different (p = 0.740). On the other hand, the tibial internal rotation in the adult group (5.6 ± 5.0 degree) was significantly greater compared to the adolescent group (4.2 ± 5.6 degree) (p = 0.030). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of the measured data from two independent observers showed excellent reliability (0.964 and 0.961 for anterior tibial translation and tibial internal rotation, respectively). Conclusion The adult patients with ACL tears exhibited significant greater tibial internal rotation compared to the adolescent patients, whereas the magnitude of the anterior tibial translation was similar in both groups. Care should be taken if clinicians plan to establish the cutoff point values for diagnosis of ACL tears using the femorotibial internal rotation angle.

Populasi ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 31
Sri Purwatiningsih

The dispatch of migrant workers from Indonesia is still quite high. Efforts to improve socio- economic status are still motivated by high rates of migration. Children left by migrant parents experience a greater emotional burden due to parenting issues. This study attempts to examine the aspirations of children and adolescents left by migrant parents based on data from the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South East Asia (CHAMPSEA) study. Analytical descriptive was used to describe children’s aspirations towards migrations on migrant and non-migrant households. This study found that children gave a bad perception when mothers had to migrate. Emotional closeness between children and mothers makes the children feel sad when being left by parents. However, once the children’s desire to migrate, especially in the ‘young adult’ group of children is precisely high. Having seen by sex, boys have a higher desire to migrate than women.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhan Xue ◽  
Lu Kong ◽  
Shuyu Hao ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Guijun Jia ◽  

Objectives: To explore the effectiveness and safety of the combined application of sodium fluorescein and neuronavigation techniques in the resection of brain gliomas in different locations and patients of different ages.Methods: Fifty clinical cases of brain gliomas treated at the Department of Neurosurgery of Beijing Tiantan Hospital were collected from March 2014 to March 2019. These cases were divided into a supratentorial group (24 cases) and a brainstem group (26 cases) based on location and an adult group (28 cases) and a pediatric group (22 cases) based on age. Fluorescein-guided surgery was performed: the adult group received 5 mg/kg sodium fluorescein before opening the dura, while the pediatric group received 2.5 mg/kg during resection. Tumor visualization was evaluated by the enhancement of yellow fluorescein and considered “satisfactory” if the illumination demarcated the tumor boundary. Additionally, the consistency between fluorescein and neuronavigation was analyzed. The Karnofsky performance score (KPS) of all patients was recorded and assessed at admission, discharge, and the 6-month follow-up.Results: In the 28 adult cases, 4 were unsatisfactory, while in the 22 pediatric cases, 2 were unsatisfactory; in 7 cases, there was an inconsistency between yellow fluorescein enhancement and neuronavigation, 6 were in the supratentorial group, and 1 was in the brainstem group. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in the satisfactory rate between the adult and pediatric groups (P = 0.575), whereas there were significant differences inconsistency between the supratentorial group and brainstem group (P = 0.031). The mean KPS at admission was between 70 and 100, which was not significantly different from that at discharge (P = 0.839), but the KPS at the 6-month follow-up was significantly higher than that at admission (P = 0.041).Conclusions: The consistency between sodium fluorescein and the neuronavigation system was higher in the brainstem group than in the supratentorial group; a half dose of sodium fluorescein (2.5 mg/kg) was sufficient for pediatric patients. The combined utilization of sodium fluorescein and neuronavigation techniques may confer glioma patients the opportunity to obtain better clinical outcomes after surgery.

2021 ◽  
Ya Zheng ◽  
Chenjing Zhu ◽  
Meng Zhu ◽  
Lang Lei

Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the difference of alveolar bone remodeling between the adolescents and adults in the maxillary incisor area during retraction. Methods: This retrospective study included 72 female patients who needed moderate anchorage to correct the bimaxillary protrusion. Subjects were further divided into the minor group (n=36, 11-16 years old) and adult group (n=36, 18-35 years old). Digital lateral cephalography and cone beam CT scanning were taken in each patient before (T0) and after treatment (T1). Cephalometry was conducted to assess incisor retraction, while alveolar bone thickness (ABT), alveolar bone distance (ABD, and alveolar bone area (ABA) were detected to assess changes in the alveolar bone. Results: No difference in the inclination of upper incisors was observed at both T0 and T1. Changes in the alveolar bone showed a similar tendency with bone apposition on the labial side and resorption on the palatal side. Less increase in the labial ABT (T1-T0) and more decrease in the palatal ABT (T1-T0) was found in the adult group, leading to less total ABT in the adult group. Higher reduction inn ABD (T1-T0) was found in the adult group. Moreover, more decrease in the ABA (T1-T0) was found in the adult group. Conclusion: When compared adolescents, adult patients have less alveolar bone support after orthodontic treatment, showing a through-the-bone remodeling pattern. Orthodontic should take the age into consideration to reduce the potential periodontal risks during treatment planning.

Cephalalgia ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 033310242110565
Kubra Kilic ◽  
Johanne Juhl Korsbæk ◽  
Rigmor H Jensen ◽  
Vlasta Vukovic Cvetkovic

Background Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is characterized by increased intracranial pressure without any pathological findings on neuroimaging, except for signs of high intracranial pressure. Before diagnosing idiopathic intracranial hypertension secondary causes of increased intracranial pressure should be excluded. Objective to characterize the phenotype of patients with secondary intracranial hypertension and to identify possible risk factors for secondary intracranial hypertension. Methods We have systematically searched the PubMed database. The publications were analyzed according to the patient phenotype, age, gender, comorbidities, body mass index/weight status, and additional medication. The results are summarized in four categories: medication, infection, hormonal induced intracranial hypertension and miscellaneous groups of diseases related to sIH. Results We identified 105 eligible papers which included 272 cases. There were 49.6% pediatric cases. Among the adult group,70.9% were women. A total of 40.4% of all cases were obese or overweight, 27% among adults and 13.4% among pediatric cases. Increased BMI and recent weight gain, anemia, renal diseases and hypertension were the most frequent comorbidities related to sIH. Conclusion Among sIH patients, 40.4% were obese or overweight; two thirds were women. We recommend that even patients with a typical IIH phenotype should be screened for secondary causes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (5) ◽  
pp. 1774-77
Ammarah Ashraf ◽  
Hannan Masud ◽  
Shafaq Rabbani ◽  
Palwasha Noor

Objective: To determine the effect of amblyopia patching therapy on visual outcome in young and adults at 6th and 12th week. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from Sep 2018 to Jan 2020. Methodology: Out of 110, follow up was successfully completed by 91 eyes. Subjects were divided into young and adult based on age. Age ranging from 5-12 years included in the young group and adult group included those ranging from 13-20 years. Anisometropic amblyopia was considered. Amblyopia due to any other disease were excluded. Subjects were advised patching therapy daily for 4 hours in the affected eye. Follow up was 3 weekly for 12 weeks and the effect of patching therapy was assessed by visual improvement. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 21. Result: Out of 91 eyes with amblyopia, 51 (56.6%) were included in the young group while 40 (43.4%) were included in the adult group. In the young group, visual improvement was seen in 40 (78.4%) while in the adult group 24 (60%) showed improvement in vision. Mean visual improvement in young was 1.66 ± 1.099 while 1.03 ± 0.944 in the adult group. Maximum visual improvement in both groups was seen till the 6th week of patching. Conclusion: Patching therapy is effective even at later ages too. However, continuing patching for more than 6 weeks doesn’t show much improvement in vision.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Liuxun Li ◽  
Xiaokang Du ◽  
Haiqian Ling ◽  
Yuhang Li ◽  
Xuemin Wu ◽  

Abstract Background Sciatic nerve injury (SNI), which frequently occurs under the traumatic hip and hip fracture dislocation, induces serious complications such as motor and sensory loss, muscle atrophy, or even disabling. The present work aimed to determine the regulating factors and gene network related to the SNI pathology. Methods Sciatic nerve injury dataset GSE18803 with 24 samples was divided into adult group and neonate group. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was carried out to identify modules associated with SNI in the two groups. Moreover, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were determined from every group, separately. Subsequently, co-expression network and protein–protein interaction (PPI) network were overlapped to identify hub genes, while functional enrichment and Reactome analysis were used for a comprehensive analysis of potential pathways. GSE30165 was used as the test set for investigating the hub gene involvement within SNI. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed separately using difference between samples and gene expression level as phenotype label to further prove SNI-related signaling pathways. In addition, immune infiltration analysis was accomplished by CIBERSORT. Finally, Drug–Gene Interaction database (DGIdb) was employed for predicting the possible therapeutic agents. Results 14 SNI status modules and 97 DEGs were identified in adult group, while 15 modules and 21 DEGs in neonate group. A total of 12 hub genes was overlapping from co-expression and PPI network. After the results from both test and training sets were overlapped, we verified that the ten real hub genes showed remarkably up-regulation within SNI. According to functional enrichment of hub genes, the above genes participated in the immune effector process, inflammatory responses, the antigen processing and presentation, and the phagocytosis. GSEA also supported that gene sets with the highest significance were mostly related to the cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction. Analysis of hub genes possible related signaling pathways using gene expression level as phenotype label revealed an enrichment involved in Lysosome, Chemokine signaling pathway, and Neurotrophin signaling pathway. Immune infiltration analysis showed that Macrophages M2 and Regulatory T cells may participate in the development of SNI. At last, 25 drugs were screened from DGIdb to improve SNI treatment. Conclusions The gene expression network is determined in the present work based on the related regulating factors within SNI, which sheds more light on SNI pathology and offers the possible biomarkers and therapeutic targets in subsequent research.

2021 ◽  
Dan Pan ◽  
Mengyao Wang ◽  
Wencheng Liu ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Lixuan Sang ◽  

Abstract Background: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease characterized by atypical symptoms, difficult diagnosis, variable course and poor prognosis, and it develops mainly in the elderly. The authors aimed to identify the clinical-pathological characteristics, prognosis, and prognostic factors in the elderly MPM patients.Methods: From the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) database, 1492 patients with MPM from 1975 to 2016 were selected and divided into the elderly group (≥65) and the adult group (<65). We compared the clinical-pathological characteristics and treatment methods of elderly group (N=665) and adult group (N=827). At the same time, we analyzed specific selected clinical-pathological parameters and prognostic factors for the elderly MPM patients.Results: Compared with the adult group, the elderly group had a higher percentage of male patients (P = 0.017), white patients (P = 0.043), a lower proportion of insured patients (P < 0.001), married patients (P < 0.001), patients with peritoneal tumors (P = 0.006), patients who underwent surgery (P < 0.001), and chemotherapy (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the differentiation grade between the two groups (P = 0.003). The elderly patients had a shorter median survival time compared with the adult patients (6 months vs 19 months). Uninsured (hazard ratio (HR): 5.187, P = 0.005), sarcomatoid type (HR: 3.913, P <0.001), poorly differentiated (HR: 3.900, P < 0.001), distant metastasis (HR: 1.735, P = 0.001), no cancer-directed surgery (HR: 1.733, P < 0.001), and no chemotherapy (HR: 1.532, P < 0.001) were independently associated with poorer prognosis of elderly MPM patients.Conclusion: Compared with the adult patients, elderly MPM patients had higher male ratio, poor differentiation and relatively conservative treatment. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate of elderly MPM patients was significantly lower than that of adult patients. Insurance status, histology type, differentiation grade, stage, surgery status, and chemotherapy status were all independent prognostic factors for elderly MPM patients.

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