external rotation
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2022 ◽  
pp. 107110072110646
Tonya An ◽  
Edward Haupt ◽  
Max Michalski ◽  
Jari Salo ◽  
Glenn Pfeffer

Background: The cavovarus deformity of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is often characterized by a paradoxical relationship of hindfoot varus and forefoot valgus. The configuration of the midfoot, which links these deformities, is poorly understood. Accurate assessment of 3-dimensional alignment under physiologic loadbearing conditions is possible using weightbearing computed tomography (WBCT). This is the first study to examine the rotational deformity in the midfoot of CMT patients and, thus, provide key insights to successful correction of CMT cavovarus foot. Methods: A total of 27 WBCT scans from 21 CMT patients were compared to control WBCTs from 20 healthy unmatched adults. CMT patients with a history of bony surgery, severe degenerative joint disease, or open physes in the foot were excluded. Scans were analyzed using 3-dimensional software. Anatomic alignment of the tarsal bones was calculated relative to the anterior-posterior axis of the tibial plafond in the axial plane, and weightbearing surface in the coronal plane. Results: Maximal rotational deformity in CMT patients occurred at the transverse tarsal joints, averaging 61 degrees of external rotation (supination), compared to 34 degrees among controls ( P < .01). The talonavicular joint was also the site of peak adduction deformity in the midfoot, with an average talonavicular coverage angle measuring 12 degrees compared with −11 degrees in controls ( P < .01). Conclusion: This 3-dimensional WBCT analysis is the first to isolate and quantify the multiplanar rotational deformity in the midfoot of CMT patients. Compared with healthy unmatched control cases, CMT patients demonstrated increased axial plane adduction and coronal plane rotation at the talonavicular (TN) joint. These findings support performing soft tissue release at the TN joint to abduct and derotate the midfoot as a first step for targeted deformity correction. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective case-control study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Senthil Kumar Balu ◽  
Subbaiah Siva ◽  
Arunachalam Ramachandran

Objectives: The objective of the study was to identify the effect of Maitland mobilization with hand-eye coordination and hand function exercises in the prognosis of adhesive capsulitis. Methods: This non-randomized control trial was done with 40 patients with adhesive capsulitis referred to the OPD at UCA College of Physiotherapy, Chennai. The study was performed for 8 months duration from August 2018 to March 2019. After providing a sufficient explanation of the procedure, the patients were divided into Group-A and Group-B. Group-A were allocated to Maitland group (n=20) (MG) and Group-B, were assigned to the Maitland, Hand-eye coordination and Hand Function exercises group (n=20) (MHG), respectively. We measured Quality of life using SF36 to know whether these patients had poor QOL compared to normative. Each patient underwent testing before the experiment to evaluate the range of motion of the shoulder (Abduction and External rotation) measured using a 180º goniometer, Functional Disability assessed using SPADI index. Statistical analysis was applied using SPSS version 20.0. Before the study, data normality was tested. A parametric test was used to compare pre-and post-intervention data in each Group-And also compare the MG vs. MHG. An α < 0.05 is the level of significance in all analyses. Results: A total of 40 subjects accounted for the study results. Their quality of life was significantly lower from the normative values. Both groups were homogenous at baseline with no significant difference between the ROM and SPADI scores. Both groups showed a significant improvement in ER, abduction ROM and SPADI scores, however the between group posttest analysis revealed that the Group-B subjects progressed significantly better. Conclusions: The study concluded that the Maitland mobilization and hand-eye coordination and hand function exercises are an effective tool in improving shoulder abduction, external rotation and shoulder functions. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5153 How to cite this:Senthil Kumar B, Subbaiah S, Ramachandran A. Need for including Hand Eye Coordination and Hand Function Training in the Management of Adhesive Capsulitis – A non-randomized control trial. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------.  doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5153 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Ruqayyah Turabi ◽  
Ian Horsely ◽  
Helen Birch ◽  
Anju Jaggi

Abstract Aim To investigate if there is a correlation between grip strength (GS) and rotator cuff (RC) strength in patients with atraumatic shoulder instability (ASI) and to compare the relationship between these two measures with that previously published for a healthy population. Moreover, to determine if testing GS could be incorporated as a surrogate clinical assessment for RC strength in these patients. Methods A total of 20 subjects with ASI were included. Out of the 20 patients, eight presented with bilateral instability, which constituted a total of 28 atraumatic unstable shoulders (N = 28). GS was measured using a Jamar hand-dynamometer. External rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) strength was tested in inner and outer ranges using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Pearson’s correlation test was computed to investigate the relationship. Multiple linear regression was conducted to predict GS based on RC strength. Results Significant and strong positive correlations were found between GS and inner-range IR (r = 0.764, P < 0.001), inner-range ER (r = 0.611, P = 0.001), outer-range IR (r = 0.817, P < 0.001), and outer-range ER (r = 0.736, P < 0.001). A significant regression equation was found (F (4, 23) = 13.254, P < 0.001), with an R2 of 0.697 indicating that RC strength explained 69.7% of the variance in GS. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis showing that GS is strongly associated with RC strength in ASI patients. The simplicity of handgrip testing allows it to be used in clinical scenarios where sophisticated assessment tools are not available. GS is a convenient means to monitor patient progress during shoulder rehabilitation programs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 036354652110625
Ryan W. Paul ◽  
Scott Sheridan ◽  
Katherine E. Reuther ◽  
John D. Kelly ◽  
Stephen J. Thomas

Background: The relationship between posterior capsule adaptations and soft tissue glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) in healthy pitchers remains unclear. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study aimed to identify if posterior capsule thickness (PCT) was associated with soft tissue GIRD in healthy pitchers. We hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between soft tissue GIRD and PCT in the dominant arm, no relationship between soft tissue GIRD and PCT in the nondominant arm, and a strong positive relationship between soft tissue GIRD and the bilateral difference in PCT (posterior capsule hypertrophy [PCH]). Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 45 healthy collegiate and professional pitchers were included. Glenohumeral internal rotation and external rotation range of motion, humeral retroversion, and PCT were measured bilaterally. PCT was determined for unilateral posterior capsule measurements, and PCH of the throwing shoulder was calculated as the bilateral difference in PCT. Soft tissue GIRD was calculated as the sum of clinical GIRD and the bilateral difference in humeral retroversion. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined to evaluate the relationships between dominant arm PCT, nondominant arm PCT, and PCH and soft tissue GIRD. Results: Pearson correlations showed that both dominant arm PCT ( R = −0.13; P = .378) and nondominant arm PCT ( R = 0.21; P = .165) were not related to soft tissue GIRD. However, Pearson correlations did show that the amount of PCH was moderately related to soft tissue GIRD ( R = 0.40; P = .007). Therefore, as the posterior capsule hypertrophied, soft tissue GIRD moderately increased. Conclusion: Increased PCH was associated with an increase in soft tissue GIRD in healthy pitchers. If PCT measurements are feasible, clinicians should consider performing bilateral ultrasound assessments to isolate posterior capsule adaptations (ie, PCH). This will allow clinicians to identify pitchers with potentially maladaptive structural adaptations and optimize management strategies throughout the season to counteract them.

Laura Sofie Grohnert ◽  
Marcellus Bonato ◽  
Volker Schöffl

Abstract Background Although climbing is an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of scientific evaluation of suitable training methods for climbers, especially with a view to prevention and rehabilitation. A specific rehabilitation program, Adjunct Compensatory Training (ACT), has recently been presented, but it has not been evaluated scientifically to date. Objective To investigate the effects of Adjunct Compensatory Training on climbing-specific overstrain syndromes of the shoulder. Methods Twenty active boulderers and climbers with an average age of 28.9 (± 7.4) years performed a guided shoulder program of six specific exercises from the ACT program over a period of four weeks. They were examined before and after the intervention. Pre- and post-interventional measurements included the Constant-Murley Score, the QuickDASH Score and the measurement of shoulder ROM (range of motion). Results The Constant-Murley Score increased from 82 (± 10.0) to 104.1 (± 8.2) at follow-up (p < 0.001). The VAS value for bouldering and climbing decreased from 5.25 (± 1.4) before to 2.4 (± 1.6) after the intervention (p < 0.001). Shoulder flexion increased from 167.5 (± 14.9) to 173.1 (± 7.7) after the intervention (p < 0.05), abduction from 172.5 (± 14.9) to 179.6 (± 5.9) (n. s.), external rotation from neutral zero position from 77.6 (± 16.8) to 86.3 ± (8.3) (p < 0.05). Feasibility and acceptance of the intervention were good. Ninety-five percent of the participants continued to exercise, and 100 percent recommended the program to others. Conclusion The ACT led to an improvement in pain, activities of daily living, range of motion and strength in boulderers and climbers with overstrain symptoms of the shoulder. It is also classified as a realistically feasible workout. The extent to which this effect will continue, and whether or not the program can prevent injuries, remains to be seen. It can only be presumed that regular exercises prevent shoulder injuries in the climbing population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 331
Markus Regauer ◽  
Gordon Mackay ◽  
Owen Nelson ◽  
Wolfgang Böcker ◽  
Christian Ehrnthaller

Background: Surgical treatment of unstable syndesmotic injuries is not trivial, and there are no generally accepted treatment guidelines. The most common controversies regarding surgical treatment are related to screw fixation versus dynamic fixation, the use of reduction clamps, open versus closed reduction, and the role of the posterior malleolus and of the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL). Our aim was to draw important conclusions from the pertinent literature concerning surgical treatment of unstable syndesmotic injuries, to transform these conclusions into surgical principles supported by the literature, and finally to fuse these principles into an evidence-based surgical treatment algorithm. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the reference lists of systematic reviews of relevant studies dealing with the surgical treatment of unstable syndesmotic injuries were searched independently by two reviewers using specific terms and limits. Surgical principles supported by the literature were fused into an evidence-based surgical treatment algorithm. Results: A total of 171 articles were included for further considerations. Among them, 47 articles concerned syndesmotic screw fixation and 41 flexible dynamic fixations of the syndesmosis. Twenty-five studies compared screw fixation with dynamic fixations, and seven out of these comparisons were randomized controlled trials. Nineteen articles addressed the posterior malleolus, 14 the role of the AITFL, and eight the use of reduction clamps. Anatomic reduction is crucial to prevent posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Therefore, flexible dynamic stabilization techniques should be preferred whenever possible. An unstable AITFL should be repaired and augmented, as it represents an important stabilizer of external rotation of the distal fibula. Conclusions: The current literature provides sufficient arguments for the development of an evidence-based surgical treatment algorithm for unstable syndesmotic injuries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Pietro S. Randelli ◽  
Riccardo Compagnoni ◽  
Simone Radaelli ◽  
Mauro B. Gallazzi ◽  
Alberto Tassi ◽  

Abstract Background Large Hill–Sachs lesions are considered a risk factor for recurrence of instability after arthroscopic Bankart repair alone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that remplissage is a safe procedure that effectively reduces the risk of recurrent dislocations without causing fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus at medium-term follow-up. Methods Patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage with a minimum 3 years of follow-up were included. Constant–Murley (CMS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and Walch–Duplay scores were evaluated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to detect the appearance of fatty infiltration inside the infraspinatus muscle, the percentage of the Hill–Sachs lesion filled by the tendon and its integration, and the onset of rotator cuff tears. Results Thirteen patients (14 shoulders) with a mean follow-up of 55.93 (± 18.16) months were enrolled. The Walch–Duplay score was 95.00 [87.25–100.00], with a return to sport rate of 100%. Both the CMS and the ASES indicated excellent results. The affected shoulders showed a statistically significant reduction in active external rotation both with the arm at the side (ER1) and with the arm at 90° of abduction (ER2) (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0010, respectively). A reduction in infraspinatus isometric strength was found for both ER1 and ER2, but this reduction was only statistically relevant in ER2 (p = 0.0342). There was a traumatic recurrence of instability in two cases (14.28%). MRI evaluation demonstrated an absence of adipose infiltration in 50% of cases and only a minimal amount in the remaining 50%. In 12 cases (85.72%), the capsulotenodesis completely filled the lesion and good tendon–bone integration was observed. Conclusion Arthroscopic remplissage provided successful clinical outcomes without fatty infiltration of the infraspinatus and with good healing of the tissues. The low risk of recurrence was associated with an objective limitation on active external rotation, but this did not influence the patients' daily or sports activities. Level of evidence: Cohort study, level of evidence 3.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Gloria Maria Hohenberger ◽  
Georg Lipnik ◽  
Angelika Maria Schwarz ◽  
Peter Grechenig ◽  
Magdalena Holter ◽  

AbstractThe study goal was to evaluate the distances from the radial (RN), the musculocutaneous (MN) and axillary nerves (AN) and the medial neurovascular bundle of the upper arm to a minimally invasive applied plate and to define its relation to the RN during different degrees of malrotation during MIPO. The sample involved ten upper extremities. Application of a PHILOS plate was performed through a Delta-split. Intervals between the AN, MN, RN and the medial vascular bundle were defined at various positions. The humeral shaft was artificially fractured at a height of about the mean of the plate. The distal fragment was brought into 15° and 30° internal (IR) as well as external rotation (ER) and here, the plate’s relation to the RN was evaluated. The medial neurovascular bundle intersected the plate at its distal part in two specimens. Regarding the distances from the RN to the plate during different rotation positions the distances became significantly longer during ER, respectively shorter during IR. The medial neurovascular bundle and the RN were identified as the main structures at risk. Care must be taken during distal screw placement and malrotation exceeding 15° must be avoided during MIPO.

2022 ◽  
Roghayeh Jalil piran ◽  
Farideh Babakhani ◽  
Ramin Balochi ◽  
Mohamadreza Hatefi

Abstract Background: Gluteus medius muscle (Gmed) dysfunction has been confirmed as a functional defect in subjects with Genu Valgum Deformity (GVD). In relation to these subjects, increase Gmed activity without synergist muscles dominance is considered as part of a specialized exercise program. Methods: A total of thirty female recreational athletes with (n=15) and without (n=15) GVD participated in this study. Surface electromyography measured Gmed, tensor fascia latae (TFL), and quadratus lumborum (QL) muscles activity when subjects performed pelvic drop (PD) in three different positions of hip rotations with and without applied isometric hip external rotation force. Results: There were differences in muscle activity between GVD and healthy subjects. The Gmed/TFL and Gmed/QL muscles activity ratio altered when placing the hip in different rotation positions and applying isometric load. Conclusions: The lower extremity muscles activity is affected by GVD, and changing the positions of the hip rotation in the PD task can be associated with altered muscle activity in both GVD and healthy Groups. However, applying isometric hip external rotation during PD can be suggested as an effective intervention to increase Gmed activity.

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