External Rotation
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Niels Christian Kaldau ◽  
Stewart Kerr ◽  
Steve McCaig ◽  
Per Hölmich

AbstractBadminton is played with repetitive high loading to the hip with lunging and jumps. In sports like soccer there is a high prevalence of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome in youth populations which may predispose them to osteoarthritis (OA). Internal rotation deficit in the hip of football players is a predictor of hip and groin pain and differences in the range of motion (ROM) of the hip between sex and different ethnicities exist. Early hip replacements in former elite badminton players due to OA seem to be a problem. There are no published values for ROM and impingement of the hip in badminton. The purpose is to report ROM and impingement of the hip in elite junior badminton players and to report any differences between sex and ethnicities. Players at the World Junior Championship 2018 were examined for hip flexion, rotation, and impingement test. Injury history was obtained from a questionnaire. Two hundred and eighty-four players of 433 aged 16 to 18 years were examined. One hundred and forty-three players answered the questionnaire. Females demonstrated greater hip ROM than males. In the dominant side hip flexion was (137.7 degrees [ ± 9.1] vs. 132.2 degrees [ ± 11.1], p < 0.001), internal rotation range of motion or IROM (60.0 degrees [ ± 10.9] vs. 49 degrees [ ± 11.1], p < 0.001) and external rotation range of motion or EROM (57.9 degrees [ ± 9.9] vs. 54.7 degrees [ ± 8.9], 0.004). Hip flexion was higher in Asian players compared with non-Asian players (139.1 degrees [ ± 8.4] vs. 130.3 degrees [ ± 10.7], p < 0.001). One hundred (35%) players had at least one positive impingement test. A possible relationship between a positive FADIR and a decrease in hip flexion was found in the dominant hip, OR 1.06 (1.02–1.11) p = 0.005. A total of 104 previous injuries lasting over 30 days were reported with five hip-related injuries. No correlation between injury and examinations was found. Females and Asians demonstrated higher ROM in the hip than males and non-Asians. Impingement of the hip is frequent and may be related to low hip flexion.

2021 ◽  
Koji Miyashita ◽  
Sentaro Koshida ◽  
Taro Koyama ◽  
Kenicihro Ota ◽  
Yusuke Tani ◽  

Coordination of glenohumeral and scapular movements plays an important role in the injury prevention of baseball pitchers. However, there is no objective data establishing the direct relationship between pitching injuries and associated glenohumeral and scapular movements. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to demonstrate biomechanical differences in scapular and glenohumeral movements during pitching between injury-prone pitchers and healthy college baseball pitchers. Thirty collegiate baseball pitchers were classified into two groups according to their injury status: injury-prone group (N=15, 20.7±1.4 years, 180.1±6.5 cm, 78.9±5.4 kg) and control group (N=15, 20.9±1.1 years, 177.1±6.6 cm, 72.3±6.7 kg). We obtained the pitching motion data using the three-dimensional motion analysis technique with four high-speed cameras. The horizontal abduction angles of the glenohumeral joint during cocking and acceleration phases were significantly greater in injury-prone pitchers [19.0° (95% CI: 14.4–23.6) at foot contact, −4.0° (95% CI: −7.7 to −0.2) at maximum external rotation (MER), and −0.3° (95% CI: −4.8 to −4.2) at ball release] than in healthy controls [11.7 °(95%CI:7.1 to 16.3) at foot contact, −10.0°(95%CI: −13.7 to −6.3) at MER, and −6.9°(95%CI: −11.4 to −2.4)]( p <0.01). In addition, the external rotation angle (ER) of the scapula at MER was significantly greater in the injury-prone group [−0.1° (95% CI: −5.0 to 4.8)] than in the control group [−12.3° (95% CI: −17.2 to −7.4)] (p<0.01), but there was no difference in the scapular ER during foot contact between the two groups. These results suggests that injury-prone pitchers have less internal rotation of the scapula and more horizontal abduction of the glenohumeral joint during cocking and acceleration phases. Therefore, sports medicine practitioners may need to pay more attention to coordination of scapular and glenohumeral movements during the cocking and acceleration phases of pitching for prevention of shoulder injuries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Amr Abdel-Mordy Kandeel

Abstract Purpose Based on its close anatomic features and nearly-collinear force vector to those of supraspinatus muscle, the current article describes a technique of middle trapezius tendon transfer for reproduction of supraspinatus function in the context of rotator cuff irreparability/re-tear management. Methods While seating the patient in beach-chair position, arthroscopic gleno-humeral examination and sub-acromial decompression are initially performed. Hamstring tendons are harvested and fashioned as flattened quadruple sheet. Through McKenzie approach, infraspinatus and subscapularis tendons are repaired. Then, medial half of middle trapezius insertion tendon is harvested from most medial 5-6 cm of the scapular spine. Through McKenzie approach, hamstring sheet is retrieved via a sub-trapezius/sub-acromial corridor from the scapular wound. Hamstring sheet is re-attached to cuff footprint by double row/suture bridge repair configuration. While retracting the scapula and placing gleno-humeral joint in 45O-abduction/45O-external rotation, hamstring sheet is re-attached to released middle trapezius tendon by non-absorbable sutures. Finally, tendon reconstruct is dynamically-tested in different positions of range of motion. Results Transfer of medial portion of middle trapezius insertion tendon (lengthened by interposition hamstring tendon sheet) to cuff footprint was technically feasible. Dynamic testing showed smooth sub-acromial gliding motion of the tendon reconstruct. Conclusion For reproduction of supraspinatus function, hamstring tendon augmented-middle trapezius tendon transfer to cuff footprint heralds a number of technical and biomechanical advantages; thus offering a potential effective modality of cuff irreparability/re-tear management in relatively young patients of high functional demands. However, current description should be investigated in further biomechanical and clinical studies to validate its long-term outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (22) ◽  
pp. 5274
Marko Nabergoj ◽  
Lionel Neyton ◽  
Hugo Bothorel ◽  
Sean W. L. Ho ◽  
Sidi Wang ◽  

There are different techniques to address severe glenoid erosion during reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). This study assessed the clinical and radiological outcomes of RSA with combined bony and metallic augment (BMA) glenoid reconstruction compared to bony augmentation (BA) alone. A review of patients who underwent RSA with severe glenoid bone loss requiring reconstruction from January 2017 to January 2019 was performed. Patients were divided into two groups: BMA versus BA alone. Clinical outcome measurements included two years postoperative ROM, Constant score, subjective shoulder value (SSV), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder (ASES) score. Radiological outcomes included radiographic evidence of scapular complications and graft incorporation. The BMA group had significantly different glenoid morphology (p < 0.001) and greater bone loss thickness than the BA group (16.3 ± 3.8 mm vs. 12.0 ± 0.0 mm, p = 0.020). Both groups had significantly improved ROM (anterior forward flexion and external rotation) and clinical scores (Constant, SSV and ASES scores) at 2 years. Greater improvement was observed in the BMA group in terms of anterior forward flexion (86.3° ± 27.9° vs. 43.8° ± 25.6°, p = 0.013) and Constant score (56.6 ± 10.1 vs. 38.3 ± 16.7, p = 0.021). The BA group demonstrated greater functional and clinical improvements with higher postoperative active external rotation and ASES results (active external rotation, 49.4° ± 17.0° vs. 29.4° ± 14.7°, p = 0.017; ASES, 89.1 ± 11.3 vs. 76.8 ± 11.0, p = 0.045). The combination use of bone graft and metallic augments in severe glenoid bone loss during RSA is safe and effective and can be considered in cases of severe glenoid bone loss where bone graft alone may be insufficient.

2021 ◽  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Pinliang Xie ◽  
Weirong Shao ◽  
Ming Xu ◽  
Xiaoping Xu ◽  

Abstract BackgroundBy establishing a three-dimensional finite element model of supination and external rotation ankle injury, the stress characteristics of the posterior ankle joint surface can be obtained, and complete analysis of the corresponding stress on the lateral ankle can be examined. MethodsThin-layer computed tomography (CT) images of normal ankle joints in the supination and external rotation non-weight-bearing states were selected, a three-dimensional data model of each ankle joint, including the ligament, was established, and whether different degrees of injury were coexistent with lateral ankle fracture was analysed by the finite element method. A load was applied to examine different ankle joint stress values and pressure distributions on the surface of the posterior ankle joint. ResultsWhen a load was applied, the maximum stress was located at the point of attachment of the anterior tibiofibular ligament to the tibia. When the anterior tibiofibular ligament was removed and the lateral malleolus was intact, the maximum stress (271.2 MPa) was located at the attachment point of the posterior tibiofibular ligament to the tibia, and the maximum pressure of the posterior ankle joint surface was 2.626 MPa. When a lateral malleolus fracture was present and the same load was applied, the maximum stress (82 MPa) was located on the fibular fracture surface, and the maximum pressure of the posterior ankle joint surface was 7.787 MPa. The posterior tibiofibular ligament was then removed completely from the lateral malleolus, and the maximum stress (132.7 MPa) was located at the point of attachment of the posterior tibiofibular ligament to the fibula, and the maximum pressure of the posterior ankle joint surface was 4.505 MPa. When a lateral malleolar fracture was present, the maximum stress (82.72 MPa) was located on the fibular fracture surface, and the maximum pressure of the posterior ankle joint surface was 8.022 MPa. ConclusionThis study shows that reconstruction of the lateral malleolus in supination-external rotation ankle injury significantly affects the stress distribution at the posterior malleolar joint surface. When reconstruction of the lateral malleolus is complete, the pressure distribution of the posterior malleolar joint surface can be significantly reduced. The results highlight the significance of reconstruction of posterior malleolar fractures and posterior tibiofibular ligament stability.

2021 ◽  
Alexandra Grob ◽  
Samy Bouaicha ◽  
Marco Germann ◽  
Sabra Germann ◽  
Christian Gerber ◽  

Abstract Background Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is a valuable solution for patients with shoulder pain or injury primarily due to a rotator cuff tear or secondary to traumatic events. Nevertheless, several complications are known to appear, with the most frequent being scapular notching (SN) on the inferior and posterior scapular neck. Controversial data exist about the clinical relevance of SN. Since further consequences are still not clearly understood, we aimed to provide more clarity on which factors, especially external rotation (ER), contribute to the appearance and progress of notching. Methods Constant Score (CS), Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), flexion, abduction, and ER were evaluated retrospectively in 153 shoulders of 147 patients (mean age 79±7.7 years; 62% women) who underwent RSA between 2005 and 2010. Anteroposterior radiographs were evaluated before and 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after RSA for SN according to the Sirveaux classification. The evaluation was performed by two independent surgeons. Spearman’s coefficient and t-test were used. Results CS, SSV, flexion, and abduction increased significantly 1 year after RSA compared to before (all p < 0.0001). No improvement was shown for ER between the same timepoints. Between 2 and 5 years of follow-up, only flexion decreased by 5°(p = 0.02) while CS, SSV, abduction, and ER remained constant. After RSA, notching increases over time. There was no association between SN and CS, SSV, flexion, abduction or ER at any of the measured timepoints. Higher flexion correlated with higher abduction after RSA at every follow-up (1 year r = 0.88, 2 years r = 0.89, 3 years r = 0.86, 5 years r = 0.86). The interrater correlation test showed a strong correlation (r = 0.7). Conclusion We verified the functional benefits of RSA for patients. Additionally, our findings show that despite radiographic progression of notching and unchanged limited ER, the postoperative improvements in CS, SSV, flexion, and abduction are preserved over 5 years.

Parisa Sayyadi ◽  
Rahman Sheikhhoseini

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the Range of Motion (ROM) and balance symmetry between dominant and non-dominant arms in classic female wrestlers. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 13 members of the Iranian Women’s National Classic Wrestling Team participated voluntarily. The shoulder ROM was measured by a goniometer and dynamic balance was assessed by the Y-balance test. Data analysis was done by running a paired t-test, with a 0.95 confidence level (α<0.05). Results: There was no significant difference between dominant and non-dominant upper extremities in flexion (P=0.162), extension (P=0.264), abduction (P=0.077), internal rotation (P=0.972), and external rotation (0.945). A significant difference was found in the Y-balance test in medial (P=0.026) and inferior-lateral directions (P=0.047), but no significant difference in superior-lateral direction (P=0.715) and composite score (P=0.071). Conclusion: Based on the results, it seems that the balance in the dominant arm is better than that in non-dominant arm in the athletes so the non-dominant arm may be at more risk for injury development. We, therefore, recommend that the coaches and trainers pay particular attention to these findings in designing the injury prevention programs.

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