axial cyclic loading
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (13) ◽  
pp. 6094
Hubdar Hussain ◽  
Xiangyu Gao ◽  
Anqi Shi

In this study, detailed finite element analysis was conducted to examine the seismic performance of square and circular hollow steel braces under axial cyclic loading. Finite element models of braces were constructed using ABAQUS finite element analysis (FEA) software and validated with experimental results from previous papers to expand the specimen’s matrix. The influences of cross-section shape, slenderness ratio, and width/diameter-to-thickness ratio on hysteretic behavior and compressive-tensile strength degradation were studied. Simulation results of parametric studies show that both square and circular hollow braces have a better cyclic performance with smaller slenderness and width/diameter-to-thickness ratios, and their compressive-tensile resistances ratio significantly decreases from cycle to cycle after the occurrence of the global buckling of braces.

2021 ◽  
Vol 145 ◽  
pp. 106113
M. Mehdizadeh ◽  
Ali Haghshenas ◽  
M.M. Khonsari

Farah Hamandi ◽  
Alyssa Whitney ◽  
Mark H. Stouffer ◽  
Michael J. Prayson ◽  
Jörn Rittweger ◽  

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of peri-prosthetic fracture of constructs made with cephalomedullary (CM) long and short nails. The nails were made with titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and stainless steel (SS 316L).Methods: Biomechanical evaluation of CM nail constructs was carried out with regard to post-primary healing to determine the risk of peri-implant/peri-prosthetic fractures. Therefore, this research comprised of, non-fractured, twenty-eight pairs of cadaveric femora that were randomized and implanted with four types of fixation CM nails resulting in four groups. These constructs were cyclically tested in bi-axial mode for up to 30,000 cycles. All the samples were then loaded to failure to measure failure loads. Three frameworks were carried out through this investigation, Michaelis–Menten, phenomenological, and probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation to model and predict damage accumulation.Findings: Damage accumulation resulting from bi-axial cyclic loading in terms of construct stiffness was represented by Michaelis–Menten equation, and the statistical analysis demonstrated that one model can explain the damage accumulation during cyclic load for all four groups of constructs (P > 0.05). A two-stage stiffness drop was observed. The short stainless steel had a significantly higher average damage (0.94) than the short titanium nails (0.90, P < 0.05). Long titanium nail group did not differ substantially from the short stainless steel nails (P > 0.05). Results showed gender had a significant effect on load to failure in both torsional and bending tests (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively).Interpretation: Kaplan–Meier survival analysis supports the use of short titanium CM nail. We recommend that clinical decisions should take age and gender into consideration in the selection of implants.

Geofluids ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Tong Zhang ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Ke Yang ◽  
Ming Tang ◽  
Xiang Yu ◽  

The mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass play a crucial role in underground engineering. To study the effect of hydraulic pressure, confining pressure, and axial cyclic loading-unloading on variation of the deformation and permeability in fractured rock mass, the coupling triaxial experiment of sandstone was conducted. The concept of permeability recovery rate (PRR) and permeability enhancement reduction rate (PERR) was proposed to characterize the change in permeability. The results show that the permeability of fractured sandstone quadratically varies with the change of hydraulic pressure and confining stress. In detail, the permeability decreases with the decrease of hydraulic pressure and increases with the decrease of confining stress, respectively. Compared with the single-fracture permeability, the double-fracture permeability is more sensitive to the change of hydraulic pressure. Furthermore, the permeability of fractured sandstone is more dependent on the hydraulic pressure than the confining stress. With the performance of axial cyclic loading-unloading, the permeability spirals down, and both the axial and radial residual strains quadratically evolve. Following the first axial cyclic loading-unloading, an obvious deformation memory phenomenon characterized by a parallelogram shape in axial stress-strain curves was observed for the sandstone. The cumulative PRR of 85%-95% was maintained in double-fracture sandstone. On the contrary, a fluctuation of cumulative PRR characterized by “V shape” was observed for single-fracture sandstone. The enhancement effect of axial cyclic loading on the permeability was characterized by the decrease of PERR for double-fracture sandstone and increase of PERR with a greater gradient for single-fracture sandstone.

Polymers ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 2176
Mariana D. Stanciu ◽  
Horațiu D. Teodorescu ◽  
Sorin Vlase

The mechanical properties of wood, respectively the elastic, plastic, and strength properties, depend on a large number of factors, due both to its structural and physical characteristics, as well as to the size, direction, nature, and speed of application of forces. Wood, generally considered to be a viscous-elastic material, has creep deformations over time under the effect of a constant load. In this study the behavior of pine wood samples was investigated due to its large utilization in different finished products, such as roof construction, furniture, outdoor applications, garden furniture, and toys. The paper aims to analyze the viscoelastic behavior of pine wood subjected to cyclically loading to traction-compression with different loads (1 kN; 1.5 kN; 2 kN), applied at different speeds (1 mm/min; 10 mm/min). It was observed that, at low speeds (1 mm/min) and low intensities of the applied force, it was possible to distinguish the three creep regions specific to wood: the primary area (primary flow), the secondary area, and finally the tertiary creep. As the force increases, the law of variation of the wood flow changes. The degradation of longitudinal elasticity modulus occurs with the increase of the number of cycles, so after 20 alternating symmetrical cycles of traction-compression of the pine wood samples, there is a decrease of its values by 35%.

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