The paper investigates the seismic performance of rectangular RC columns retrofitted by a newly developed 3D Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) panel. The 3D-TRM used in this study consists of two components: self-leveling mortar and 3D textiles. Firstly, the flexural capacity of the 3D-TRM panel was investigated through the four-point flexural test. Secondly, a total of five specimens were constructed and experimentally investigated through static cyclic loading tests with constant axial load. One specimen was a non-seismically designed column without any retrofit, while the others were strengthened with either the 3D-TRM panel or conventional Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) sheets. Experimental results in terms of hysteretic behavior, ductility ratio, and energy dissipation are investigated and compared with the cases of specimens with conventional retrofitting methods and without any retrofit. The maximum lateral force, ductility, stiffness degradation, and energy dissipation of RC columns with 3D-TRM panels were significantly improved compared with the conventional RC column. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposed retrofitting method can improve the seismic performance of non-conforming RC columns.
Microstructure showing the involvement of the fine and coarse grains in the soil skeleton is evaluated. Incremental loading tests using a stress-dependent permeameter are conducted on the mixtures of poorly graded sand and nonplastic fines originating from tailings. The results are compared with the published data of various tailings. It is shown that increasing the fines content from 0 to 100%, the involvement of the fine and coarse components of soil skeleton can be classified into four categories: no fines involvement (<10% fines), fines partially involved (10% —35% fines), increasing cushioning effect surrounding the coarse (35% — 40% fines), and constant cushioning effect (> 40% fines). At the same consolidation stress, the void ratio, e, rapidly decreases for fines less than 30%, then almost remains constant between 30% and 50% fines, and gradually increases for fines exceeding 50%. The hydraulic conductivity, k, decreases more than 20-fold as the fines content increases from 12% to 50%, then remains constant. k is proportional to [e3/(1+e)]A and inversely proportional to S2, where A is a factor describing the effect of particle angularity and S is the specific surface. Finally, the influence of fines content on the seepage-induced internal stability is discussed.
The technological performance of a chabazite-rich rock belonging to the Campanian Ignimbrite formation, outcropping in the nearby of San Mango sul Calore (southern Italy), has been evaluated for the sorption and release of ibuprofen sodium salt after a surface modification of the starting geomaterial using two different chlorinated surfactants. Equilibrium sorption isotherms and in vitro loading tests demonstrated that the maximum sorption capacities of this geomaterial reach up to 24.5 and 13.5 mg/g, respectively, for zeolite modified with cetylpyridinium and benzalkonium. These results, obtained by non-linear mathematical modeling of the experimental curves, are definitely compatible with the concentrations of the most common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen) in wastewaters, which have been recently considered as contaminants of emerging concern. This investigation also encourages a new possible sustainable exploitation of the lithified yellow facies of Campanian Ignimbrite, although future developments will be focused on using more stable and eco-friendlier two-tailed surfactants.
In this study, the Kagome truss damper, a metallic wire structures, was introduced and its mechanical properties were investigated through theoretical analyses and experimental tests. The yield strength of the Kagome damper is dependent on the geometric shape and diameter of the metallic wire. The Kagome damper has higher resistance to plastic buckling as well as lower anisotropy. Cyclic shear loading tests were conducted to investigate the energy dissipation capacity and stiffness/strength degradation by repeated loadings. The hysteretic properties obtained from the tests suggest that a modification of the ideal truss model with a hinged connection could be used to predict the yield strength and stiffness of the damper. For seismic retrofitting of a low-rise RC moment frame system, a wall-type Kagome damping system (WKDS) was proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed system was verified by conducting cyclic loading tests using a RC frame with/without the WKDS (story drift ratio limit 1.0%). The test results indicated that both the strength and stiffness of the RC frame increased to the target level and that its energy dissipation capacity was significantly enhanced. Nonlinear static and dynamic analyses were carried out to validate that the existing building structure can be effectively retrofitted using the proposed WKDS.
Crack formation in hemispherical domes is a distinguished problem in structural mechanics. The safety of cracked domes has a long track record; the evolution of the cracking pattern received less attention. Here, we report displacement-controlled loading tests of brittle hemispherical dome specimens, including the evolution of the meridional cracking pattern. The 27 investigated specimens, 20 cm in diameter, were prepared in 3D printed molds, and their material is one of the three mixtures of gypsum and cement. We find that neither the (limited) tensile strength nor the exact value of the thickness significantly affects the statistical description of the cracking pattern, i.e., the cracking phenomenon is robust. The maximal number of the meridional cracks never exceeds seven before the fragments’ disintegration (collapse). We find that the size distribution of the fragments exhibits a lognormal distribution. The evolution is reflected in the load-displacement diagrams recorded in the test, too, as significant drops in the force are accompanied by an emergence of one or more new cracks, reflecting the brittle nature of the phenomenon. A simple, stochastic fragmentation model, in which a segment is fragmented at either in the middle or at the fourth point, fairly recovers the observed size distribution.
PurposeThe purpose of this study is to clarify both tensile and shear strength for self-drilling screws, which are manufactured from high-strength, martensitic-stainless and austenitic stainless-steel bars, and the load-bearing capacity of single overlapped screwed connections using steel sheets and self-drilling screws at elevated temperatures.Design/methodology/approachTensile/shear loading tests for the self-drilling screw were conducted to obtain basic information on the tensile and shear strengths at elevated temperatures and examine the relationships between both. Shear loading tests for the screwed connections at elevated temperatures were conducted to examine the shear strength and transition of failure modes depending on the test temperature.FindingsThe tensile and shear strengths as well as the reduction factors at the elevated temperature for each steel grade of the self-drilling screw were quantified. Furthermore, either screw shear or sheet bearing failure mode depending on the test temperature was observed for the screwed connection.Originality/valueThe transition of the failure modes for the screwed connection could be explained using the calculation formulae for the shear strengths at elevated temperatures, which were proposed in this study.
To investigate the failure behavior of piping systems under severe seismic loads considering beyond design basis event (BDBE), an experimental approach to use pipes made of simulation materials was applied. "Simulation material" means the substitute material for steel to realize the structural experiment by the existing testing facilities. The simulation materials adopted in this study were pure lead (Pb) or lead-antimony (Pb-Sb) alloy. Using pipe elbows made of simulation materials, static loading tests on elbows and shaking table tests on simple piping system models composed of one or two elbows and an additional mass were conducted.
From the static loading tests, the load-deflection relationship of an elbow under monotonic loading was obtained as well as the fatigue failure modes under cyclic loading depending on the several cyclic displacement levels. From the shaking table tests, several failure modes were obtained, namely, "Collapse by self-weight", "Collapse by a few cycles of input", "Ratchet and subsequent collapse", "Overall deformation", and "No failure". It was considered that the occurrence of these failure modes was affected by the ratio of the input frequency to the specimen's natural frequency, the ratio of additional mass weight to the limit mass weight, the configuration of the specimen, and the input acceleration level. The experimental results indicated that it was crucial to understand the structure's ultimate behavior when treating BDBE, and that the research approach using simulation material is effective to investigate the ultimate behavior of piping systems.