colombian amazon
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Héctor Serrano-Coll ◽  
Hollman Miller ◽  
Camilo Guzmán ◽  
Ricardo Rivero ◽  
Bertha Gastelbondo ◽  

Abstract Introduction Currently, more than 4.5 billion doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been applied worldwide. However, some developing countries are still a long way from achieving herd immunity through vaccination. In some territories, such as the Colombian Amazon, mass immunization strategies have been implemented with the CoronaVac® vaccine. Due to its proximity to Brazil, where one of the variants of interest of SARS-CoV-2 circulates. Objective To determine the effectiveness of the CoronaVac® vaccine in a population of the Colombian Amazon. Methods Between February 24, 2021, and August 10, 2021, a descriptive observational study was carried out in which a population of individuals over 18 years of age immunized with two doses of the CoronaVac® vaccine was evaluated. The study site was in the municipality of Mitú, Vaupés, in southeastern Colombia, a region located in the Amazon bordering Brazil. Results. 99% of the urban population of the Mitú municipality were vaccinated with CoronaVac®. To date, 5.7% of vaccinated individuals have become ill, and only 0.1% of these require hospitalization. One death was attributable to COVID-19 has been reported among vaccinated individuals, and the vaccine has shown 94.3% effectiveness against mild disease and 99.9% against severe infection. Conclusions The herd immunity achieved through mass vaccination in this population has made it possible to reduce the rate of complicated cases and mortality from COVID-19 in this region of the Colombian Amazon. Highlights CoronaVac® has shown 94.3% effectiveness against mild disease and 99.9% against severe infection in this indigenous population. CoronaVac® reduces the mortality rate from 2.2% in 2020 to 0.22% in 2021. The herd immunity was achieved through mass vaccination in this region of the Colombian Amazon.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261612
Faver Álvarez ◽  
Fernando Casanoves ◽  
Juan Carlos Suárez

Trees dispersed in grazing areas are contribute to the sustainability of livestock systems. The interactions between trees and soil are ecological processes that allow the modification of the biology, fertility, and physics of the soil. This study was aimed to assess the influence of dispersed trees in pastures on soil properties in grazing areas for dual-purpose cattle systems in the Piedmont region of the Colombian Amazon. The work was done in grazing areas with scattered trees at the Centro de Investigaciones Amazónicas CIMAZ–Macagual in Florencia—Caquetá—Colombia. We evaluated the effect of five tree species, Andira inermis, Bellucia pentámera, Guarea Guidonia, Psidium guajava and Zygia longifolia, on soil properties (up to 30 cm soil depth) under and outside the influence of the crown. Under the tree crown, three points were systematically taken in different cardinal positions. This was done at a distance corresponding to half the radius of the tree crown. The sampling points in the open pasture area (out of crown) were made in the same way, but at 15 m from the crown border. The ANOVA showed significant interaction (P < 0.0001) between tree species and location for macrofauna abundance up to 30 cm soil depth. For this reason, we performed the comparison between locations for each tree species. Chemical soil variables up to 10 cm soil depth only showed interaction of tree species-location for exchangeable potassium (P = 0.0004). Soil physical soil characteristics up to 30 cm soil depth only showed interaction of tree species-location at 20 cm soil depth (P = 0.0003). The principal component analysis for soil properties explained 61.1% of the total variability of the data with the two first axes. Using Monte Carlo test, we found crown effect for all species. Trees help to control exchangeable mineral elements that can affect the soil, potentiate basic cations such as magnesium and potassium, increase the abundance of soil macrofauna; but some trees with high ground level of shade in grazing areas could increase soil compaction due to the greater concentration of cattle in these areas.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 320
Adriana M. Silva-Olaya ◽  
Andres Olaya-Montes ◽  
Karen L. Polanía-Hincapié ◽  
Maurício Roberto Cherubin ◽  
Ervin H. Duran-Bautista ◽  

Silvopastoral systems (SPS), an integrated farming system in which tropical grasses are combined with trees and shrubs, have been implemented in the last years in the Amazon region in order to mitigate the impacts generated by the traditional cattle ranching system. However, despite the multiple SPS’s benefits to soil and ecosystem, there is a paucity of comprehensive studies revealing the potential soil health (SH) restoration through SPS. Here, by developing an overall SH index using local native vegetation (Amazon rainforest) as a reference, we aimed to assess SH changes induced by the land transition from the traditional livestock production system to the SPS in the Colombian Amazon region. A chronosequence conformed by three areas: (i) native vegetation, (ii) traditional pasture and (iii) silvopastoral system was established in two study sites located in the Colombian Amazon, specifically in Caquetá State, the second hotspot of deforestation in the Amazon Basin. The results indicated high soil compaction and loss of macrofauna diversity and richness due to pasture management, causing a loss of 9% of soil capacity to function. In contrast, by integrating 31 soil indicators, our SH assessment revealed that SPS was an effective strategy for the recovery of SH, impacting positively multiple soil functions related to nutrient dynamics, water retention and supply, and biological activity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 6485-6501
Marco Aurelio Correa-Munera ◽  
Javier Aldana-García ◽  
Diego Andrés Caicedo-Araujo ◽  
Oscar Mauricio López-Floriano ◽  
Claudia Patricia Ortiz-Castillo ◽  

Se realizó la aproximación al estado del arte de la flora del departamento del Caquetá y el papel del Jardín Botánico Uniamazonia y el Herbario Enrique Forero-HUAZ, en esta tarea. Se documentó la información disponible sobre la flora del Caquetá, producto de investigaciones realizadas desde el grupo de investigación en Botánica Uniamazonia, así como las realizadas por estudiantes, investigadores nacionales y locales. Adicionalment            e, se sistematizaron y publicaron en el SIB Colombia 11 734 registros de la colección de plantas vasculares. El Jardín Botánico Uniamazonia y el Herbario Enrique Forero-HUAZ, han logrado reunir y conservar en 15 años de trabajo, más de 279 plantas vasculares en su colección viva y más de 21 000 ejemplares secos de la flora de Colombia, principalmente de la zona de transición andino-amazónica y la planicie amazónica. La fracción sistematizada de plantas vasculares equivale al 55 % del total de la colección, contando con 2 679 especies, distribuidas en 203 familias y 1 133 géneros, de las cuales 2 172 especies son registros del departamento del Caquetá. Aún existen municipios y coberturas en los que no se han realizado colectas, por lo que se espera que el número de taxones aumente paralelo al proceso de sistematización. 

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2484
Carlos H. Rodríguez-León ◽  
Clara P. Peña-Venegas ◽  
Armando Sterling ◽  
Daniel Castro ◽  
Lizeth K. Mahecha-Virguez ◽  

Successional processes in abandoned pastures in the Amazon region have been well-documented for the floristic component; however, soil succession has been poorly studied. This study assessed the physical, chemical and biological responses of soils in the Amazon region during the natural succession process in two main landscapes of the Colombian Amazon. Soil data on soil physico–chemical (bulk density, macroaggregates, pH and minerals) and biological (soil macrofauna) composition were evaluated along chronosequence with four successional stages: (i) degraded pastures, (ii) young (10–20-year-old), (iii) middle-age (25–40-year-old) and (iv) mature forests, in two different landscapes (hill and mountain). Individual soil variables and a synthetic indicator of soil quality (GISQ) were evaluated as tools for natural succession monitoring. The results corroborated the negative impact that cattle ranching has on Amazon soils. After 10 years of natural succession, the physico–chemical and biological soil components were widely restored. Less soil compaction and organic carbon occurred in older successional stages. Soil macrofauna richness and density increased along the chronosequence, with an evident association between the macrofauna composition and the macroaggregates in the soil. None of the individual soil properties or the GISQ indicator discriminated among natural succession stages; therefore, new soil quality indicators should be developed to monitor soil quality restoration in natural successions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 347-351

ABSTRACT We present the first report of Nasutitermes guayanae feeding on human bone remains found in an urban area of the municipality of Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia, in the Colombian Amazon piedmont. The record indicates an expansion in the diet of these termites. The observation suggests that the association of N. guayanae with decomposing bodies may be a possible tool for the estimation of postmortem intervals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Susana Caballero ◽  
Maria Camila Ortiz-Giral ◽  
Laura Bohorquez ◽  
Juan Diego Lozano Mojica ◽  
Dalila Caicedo-Herrera ◽  

The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) and the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) are distributed in rivers in the Caribbean and Amazonian region of Colombia respectively. For 30 years, genetic information has been obtained from these populations in order to inform conservation programs for these endangered species and decide on the location to release them back to the wild. However, in previous studies, samples from rivers in some areas of the country were not included, given the difficulties to access these regions due to either logistic or safety issues. In this study, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) sequences of from samples of T. manatus (n = 37) and T. inunguis (n = 4) (410 and 361 bp, respectively), obtained in new and previously unexplored rivers and bays in the country, including Santa Marta, Urabá Gulf, Ayapel Marsh (San Jorge River Basin), Meta River and Magdalena Medio and the low Magdalena River (Cesar Province and Canal del Dique) as well as additional samples from Puerto Nariño in the Colombian Amazon. Our results included the discovery of two newly described mtDNA CR haplotypes for T. manatus. In addition, we confirmed significant population differentiation at the mitochondrial level between the Magdalena and Sinú rivers and differentiation among areas of the same river, including the middle and low Magdalena River. This differentiation may be related to anthropic changes in the river since construction of the Canal del Dique in the XVI century. We also tested environmental DNA sampling and analyses techniques to evaluate its potential use for manatee detection and monitoring in bodies of water in Colombia, in order to evaluate new areas for future manatee conservation initiatives. We emphasize the need to continue using genetic information to provide evidence on the potential best locations to undertake animal release to prevent outbreeding depression.

2021 ◽  
Juan D. Fonseca ◽  
Jean-Marc Commenge ◽  
Mauricio Camargo ◽  
Laurent Falk ◽  
Ivan D. Gil

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