safety issues
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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Hui Xu ◽  
Zhuangbin Chen ◽  
Mingshen Sun ◽  
Yangfan Zhou ◽  
Michael R. Lyu

Rust is an emerging programming language that aims at preventing memory-safety bugs without sacrificing much efficiency. The claimed property is very attractive to developers, and many projects start using the language. However, can Rust achieve the memory-safety promise? This article studies the question by surveying 186 real-world bug reports collected from several origins, which contain all existing Rust common vulnerability and exposures (CVEs) of memory-safety issues by 2020-12-31. We manually analyze each bug and extract their culprit patterns. Our analysis result shows that Rust can keep its promise that all memory-safety bugs require unsafe code, and many memory-safety bugs in our dataset are mild soundness issues that only leave a possibility to write memory-safety bugs without unsafe code. Furthermore, we summarize three typical categories of memory-safety bugs, including automatic memory reclaim, unsound function, and unsound generic or trait. While automatic memory claim bugs are related to the side effect of Rust newly-adopted ownership-based resource management scheme, unsound function reveals the essential challenge of Rust development for avoiding unsound code, and unsound generic or trait intensifies the risk of introducing unsoundness. Based on these findings, we propose two promising directions toward improving the security of Rust development, including several best practices of using specific APIs and methods to detect particular bugs involving unsafe code. Our work intends to raise more discussions regarding the memory-safety issues of Rust and facilitate the maturity of the language.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
Lan Jin ◽  
Lalatendu Acharya

The purpose of the study was to develop tailored messages improving mental health and adjustment of Asian international students (AIS) in the US. The PEN-3 cultural model was used to contextualize the role of culture in mental health needs of AIS. Messages were developed through a multi-step participatory process with consisting of three focus groups (n=15), thirteen individual interviews, one expert consultation, and finally an online survey (n=85). The study led to the development of seven broad themes with seven tailored messages under each theme (total 49). Seven broad themes were: increasing the awareness of mental health and reducing stigma; motivational quotes; available and accessible resources for AIS to improve mental health; seeking help from social network and developing interpersonal skills; adjusting to American culture and college life; coping strategies to reduce stress and improve mental health and adjustment; and safety issues. The implications for culturally responsive programs are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Daniel Freilich ◽  
Jennifer Victory ◽  
Anne Gadomski

Background In the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many hospitalized patients received empiric hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (HC/CQ). Although some retrospective-observational trials suggested potential benefit, all subsequent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) failed to show benefit and use generally ceased. Herein, we summarize key studies that clinicians advising patients on HC/CQ efficacy:safety calculus in hospitalized COVID-19 patients would want to know about in a practical one-stop-shopping source. Methods Pubmed and Google were searched on November 4, 2021. Search words included: COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, in vitro, animal studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses. Studies were assessed for import and included if considered impactful for benefit:risk assessment. Results These searches led to inclusion of 12 in vitro and animal reports; 12 retrospective-observational trials, 19 interventional clinical trials (17 RCTs, 1 single-arm, 1 controlled but unblinded), and 51 meta-analyses in hospitalized patients. Inconsistent efficacy was seen in vitro and in animal studies for coronaviruses and nil in SARS-CoV-2 animal models specifically. Most retrospective-observational studies in hospitalized COVID-19 patients found no efficacy; QT prolongation and increased adverse events and mortality were reported in some. All RCTs and almost all meta-analyses provided robust data showing no benefit in overall populations and subgroups, yet concerning safety issues in many. Conclusions HC/CQ have inconsistent anti-coronavirus efficacy in vitro and in animal models, and no convincing efficacy yet substantial safety issues in the overwhelming majority of retrospective-observational trials, RCTs, and meta-analyses in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. HC/CQ should not be prescribed for hospitalized COVID-19 patients outside of clinical trials.

Indrani Roy

There is a strong coordinated effort by vaccination groups all over the world to put an end to the current crisis of COVID-19. The Mass vaccination first started in the UK on 8th December 2020 and soon afterward covered all of the globe. Now sufficient data are available to analyse and compare some results to explore many aftereffects of vaccination. Some influence variables on transmissions of the disease were discussed e.g., mass vaccination, lockdown and seasonality. To address seasonality, similarities between COVID-19 and seasonal Flu are discussed to gain useful insight. Like Flu, seasonality was shown to play a dominant role in transmissions of COVID-19 in the Eu-rope and US. In terms of mass vaccination, adverse reactions after vaccination received attention, as health and safety issues of the general public are of prime importance. Apart from direct side effects, the secondary effect of mass vaccination needs attention too. After the initiation of vaccination programme , almost all countries experienced a sudden surge of transmission and most countries had to impose strict lockdown measures. Many countries, those showed a low prevalence of the disease, suddenly showed a steep jump after the onset of mass vaccination. Some countries even followed a synchronized pattern between the rate of transmissions and the variation of vaccine doses; the pattern seemed distinct with the sudden steep rise/fall in vaccine doses (e.g., countries India, Indonesia among others). In that context, fast mutation of the virus and new variants after mass vaccination and possible mechanisms/consequences were discussed. Balanced discussion, critical and open analyses are desperately needed in the current crucial stage. Debating, questioning and criticism are always the foundation of good science and the main pillars to its progress. Following that objective, it is an effort to explore pragmatically, areas relating to the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine and the exit strategy via the pathway of vaccination. Policymakers, academics, patients and common people will be greatly benefitted from such critical, transparent and balanced analyses.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Marco Paoloni ◽  
Francesco Agostini ◽  
Sergio Bernasconi ◽  
Gianni Bona ◽  
Carlo Cisari ◽  

Background and Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) are generally considered non-scientific and poor effective therapies. Nevertheless, CAMs are extensively used in common clinical practice in Western countries. We decided to promote a Delphi consensus to intercept the opinion of Italian physicians on CAM use in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: We run a Delphi-based consensus, interviewing anonymously 97 physicians. Of these, only 78 participate to the questionnaire. Results: Consensus about agreement and disagreement have been reached in several topics, including indication, as well as safety issues concerning CAMs. Conclusions: The use of CAMs in clinical practice still lacks evidence. Experts agree about the possibility to safely use CAMs in combination with conventional medicines to treat non-critical medical conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Antonio Raffo ◽  
Flavio Paoletti

The fresh-cut industry supplies the food market with healthy fresh fruit and vegetables and, in that way, may contribute to improve the nutritional status of the general population. On the other hand, over the last few years increasing concerns have been raised regarding the environmental impact of the fresh-cut industry, human health risks from exposure to disinfection by-products found in fresh-cut products and chlorine-based disinfection treatments during produce processing. This review provides a comprehensive view of the main interlinked aspects related to food safety and environmental impact of processing of fresh-cut vegetables. Advantages and downsides of the mainstream disinfection strategy, based on the use of chlorine-related disinfecting agents, along with some alternative treatments close to a wide commercial application, are discussed. Limitation in the application of these strategies to processing of organic fresh-cut produce are also highlighted, examining the specific environmental and food safety problems in the organic sector. Areas where lack of available information hinders at present a clear understanding of priorities of research and action are pointed out. Innovative conceptual tools are proposed to address these multiple and interlinking issues and to overcome limitations of currently available technologies. A comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach is suggested to move toward a more safe and environmentally sustainable production of fresh-cut products.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 94-108
Karim Farghaly ◽  
Ranjith K. Soman ◽  
William Collinge ◽  
Mojgan Hadi Mosleh ◽  
Patrick Manu ◽  

A pronounced gap often exists between expected and actual safety performance in the construction industry. The multifaceted causes of this performance gap are resulting from the misalignment between design assumptions and actual construction processes that take place on-site. In general, critical factors are rooted in the lack of interoperability around the building and work-environment information due to its heterogeneous nature. To overcome the interoperability challenge in safety management, this paper represents the development of an ontological model consisting of terms and relationships between these terms, creating a conceptual information model for construction safety management and linking that ontology to IfcOWL. The developed ontology, named Safety and Health Exchange (SHE), comprises eight concepts and their relationships required to identify and manage safety risks in the design and planning stages. The main concepts of the developed ontology are identified based on reviewing accident cases from 165 Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) and 31 Press Releases from the database of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in the United Kingdom. Consequently, a semantic mapping between the developed ontology and IfcOWL (the most popular ontology and schema for interoperability in the AEC sector) is proposed. Then several SPARQL queries were developed and implemented to evaluate the semantic consistency of the developed ontology and the cross-mapping. The proposed ontology and cross-mapping gained recognition for its innovation in utilising OpenBIM and won the BuildingSMART professional research award 2020. This work could facilitate developing a knowledge-based system in the BIM environment to assist designers in addressing health and safety issues during the design and planning phases in the construction sector.

Arthur Y Yu

Abstract Background Filler injection for nose tip improvement remains a difficult subject due to efficacy and safety issues. Objectives To better the techniques and safety for nose tip improvement with a filler. Methods Patients seeking nose tip improvement were recruited regardless of their pre-treatment conditions. A hyaluronic acid filler is injected through the skin behind the nose tip into the potential septal space. To achieve tip elevation, the filler is retro injected from the anterior nasal spine, stopping at the mid-level of medial crura. To elongate the nose, the filler is deposited just in front of the caudal septal cartilage. The tip extends in the sagittal plane, causing the nose tip to move either caudally (tip elongation) or anteriorly (tip elevation), or both, as directed by the surgeon. Results Depending on the patients, the nose could be elongated by 2 to 6mm, and the tip could be elevated by 2 to 8 mm. Additionally, stronger columellar support, finer tip structures, and improved nasolabial angle are observed. Interestingly, the upper lip appears shorter. The nostril shapes and the alar widths are also improved. A total of 1288 cases are reported. Only two patients expressed dissatisfaction. Conclusions This technique is easy and safe to perform and, the results are natural and comparable to those from rhinoplasty surgeries. Further, this report of filler nose lengthening may be the first large series in the world. Finally, this technique works well in all populations.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 204
Aleksandra Kowalska ◽  
Louise Manning

Sesame seeds within the European Union (EU) are classified as foods not of animal origin. Two food safety issues associated with sesame seeds have emerged in recent years, i.e., Salmonella contamination and the presence of ethylene oxide. Fumigation with ethylene oxide to reduce Salmonella in seeds and spices is not approved in the EU, so its presence in sesame seeds from India was a sentinel incident sparking multiple trans-European product recalls between 2020–2021. Following an interpretivist approach, this study utilises academic and grey sources including data from the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) database to inform a critical appraisal of current EU foods not of animal origin legislation and associated governance structures and surveillance programs. This is of particular importance as consumers are encouraged towards plant-based diets. This study shows the importance of collaborative governance utilizing data from company testing and audits as well as official regulatory controls to define the depth and breadth of a given incident in Europe. The development of reflexive governance supported by the newest technology (e.g., blockchain) might be of value in public–private models of food safety governance. This study contributes to the literature on the adoption of risk-based food safety regulation and the associated hybrid public–private models of food safety governance where both regulators and private organizations play a vital role in assuring public health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. e801
Bello Musa Yakubu ◽  
Rabia Latif ◽  
Aisha Yakubu ◽  
Majid Iqbal Khan ◽  
Auwal Ibrahim Magashi

The increasing number of rice product safety issues and the potential for contamination have established an enormous need for an effective strategy for the traceability of the rice supply chain. Tracing the origins of a rice product from raw materials to end customers is very complex and costly. Existing food supply chain methods (for example, rice) do not provide a scalable and cost-effective means of agricultural food supply. Besides, consumers lack the capability and resources required to check or report on the quality of agricultural goods in terms of defects or contamination. Consequently, customers are forced to decide whether to utilize or discard the goods. However, blockchain is an innovative framework capable of offering a transformative solution for the traceability of agricultural products and food supply chains. The aim of this paper is to propose a framework capable of tracking and monitoring all interactions and transactions between all stakeholders in the rice chain ecosystem through smart contracts. The model incorporates a system for customer satisfaction feedback, which enables all stakeholders to get up-to-date information on product quality, enabling them to make more informed supply chain decisions. Each transaction is documented and stored in the public ledger of the blockchain. The proposed framework provides a safe, efficient, reliable, and effective way to monitor and track rice products safety and quality especially during product purchasing. The security and performance analysis results shows that the proposed framework outperform the benchmark techniques in terms of cost-effectiveness, security and scalability with low computational overhead.

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