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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Vitaliy E. Potapov ◽  
Vladimir Alekseevich Sorokovikov ◽  
Sergey Nikolaevich Larionov ◽  
Aleksandr Petrovich Zhivotenko

The problem of the pathology of the facet joints of the lumbar spine remains significant and is medical and social due to persistent pain syndrome, high incidence of morbidity and frequent disability outcomes. The complex anatomical and topographic relationships of the facet joints, intervertebral discs and radicular nerves force clinicians to pay attention to the pathology of facet syndrome. A pair of facet joints and an intervertebral disc constitute a functional unit - a "three-component complex" and are interconnected with each other. The article examines the anatomical and morphological features and radiological classifications of degenerative changes in the facet joints, which are currently used in clinical practice. Facet joint pathologies are the most common nosological form of degenerative-dystrophic process (spondyloarthrosis) and a potential source of pain with the formation of instability of the spinal motion segment and the formation of chronic pain syndrome. The features of facet syndrome diagnostics are presented on a clinical example of surgical treatment by means of laser dereception of facet joints.


2021 ◽  
Vol 63 (11) ◽  
pp. 48-52
Author(s):  
Thi Dam Linh Mai ◽  
◽  
Thi Quynh Do ◽  
Thi Thanh Mai Nguyen ◽  
Thanh Hien Pham ◽  
...  

The yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is capable of lipid biosynthesis and accumulation up to more than 30% of dried cell biomass. It is a potential source for biodiesel production. Recent studies have shown that the applications of culture technologies can promote increased lipid accumulation in R. toruloides. In this study, the authors investigated the lipid biosynthesis ability of two yeast strains R. toruloides VTCC 20689 and VTCC 20765 isolated in Vietnam. The results indicated that both strains have the ability to accumulate lipids up to approximately 45% of the dried biomass of cells when cultured at 30oC for 48 h in the culture medium with pH 5.5. Cultivation of these two yeast strains on some different carbon sources showed that sugarcane molasses can be used as a low-cost carbon source for efficient lipid biosynthesis. When growing both strains on the medium with sugarcane molasses, the lipid biosynthesis reached about 44%, which is equivalent to in the medium with glucose.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carla Rodrigues ◽  
Kathrin Hauser ◽  
Niamh Cahill ◽  
Malgorzata Ligowska-Marzeta ◽  
Gabriella Centorotola ◽  
...  

Klebsiella pneumoniae species complex (KpSC) is a leading cause of multidrug-resistant human infections. To better understand the potential contribution of food as a vehicle of KpSC, we conducted a multicentric study to define an optimal culture method for its recovery from food matrices, and to characterize food isolates phenotypically and genotypically. Chicken meat (n=160) and salad (n=145) samples were collected in five European countries and screened for KpSC presence using culture-based and ZKIR qPCR methods. Enrichment using buffered peptone water followed by streaking on Simmons citrate agar with inositol (44C/48h) was defined as the most suitable selective culture method for KpSC recovery. High prevalence of KpSC was found in chicken meat (60% and 52% by ZKIR qPCR and culture approach, respectively) and salad (30% and 21%, respectively) samples. Genomic analyses revealed high genetic diversity with the dominance of phylogroups Kp1 (91%) and Kp3 (6%). 82% of isolates presented a natural antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype and genotype, with only four CTX-M-15-producing isolates detected. Notably, identical genotypes were found across samples: same food type and same country (15 cases); different food types and same country (1); same food type and two countries (1), suggesting high rates of transmission of KpSC within the food sector. Our study provides a novel isolation strategy for KpSC from food matrices and reinforces the view of food as a potential source of KpSC colonization in humans.


Author(s):  
Letícia Groli Lucca ◽  
Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão ◽  
Márcia Vignoli-Silva ◽  
Valdir F. da Veiga-Junior ◽  
Letícia S. Koester

: In recent years, there was a significant increase in the search for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this sense, natural products emerge as a potential source for the discovery of new drugs, with the research of the pharmacological properties of these products being very important. In addition to its function in plants (insect attraction and repellency), essential oils present pharmacological effects, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antimutagenic, antiviral, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. In this review, we describe the mostly used in vivo acute inflammatory experimental models and the studies showing the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils. Essential oil from species from the Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Burseraceae, Boraginaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Verbenaceae and Zingiberaceae families were described as being anti-inflammatory in vivo. Five models of acute inflammation are commonly used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity in vivo: ear and paw edema, pleurisy, peritonitis and the subcutaneous air pouch model. In addition to in vivo analysis, ex vivo and in vitro experiments are carried out to study the anti-inflammatory action of essential oils. The most commonly used model was paw edema, especially due to this model being easy to perform. In order to suggest or elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect, many studies measured some inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, COX-2 expression and the levels of PGE2, and NO, or evaluated the effect of essential oils or their major compounds on inflammation response directly induced by inflammatory mediators.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
James Skierka

<p>The presented thesis is an examination of the mythology and literary narrative that is present within the two orchestral tone poems of Bedřich Smetana, Tábor and Blaník, and how ideas pertaining to the examination of Smetana’s compositions may be applied to my own compositional output. In my research, I propose potential source materials, and have a brief discussion about how literary narrative may be applied to musical narrative, particularly with compositions of the 19th century. In the analysis of Tábor and Blaník, I examine Smetana’s use of the chorale Kdož jsú Boží bojovníci and how he utilizes this chorale as the compositional foundation of both pieces, as well as looking at the musical elements and structure that combine to suggest narrative function being present within both compositions.  The latter portion of my thesis contains an analysis of the compositions that I wrote throughout the course of my study that were inspired by, or were direct reflections of, issues and ideas that came up during the course of my research. All of my own compositions presented are based on ideas of mythology and the presence of a literary narrative. Accompanying this analysis, are copies of the scores of my compositions.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
James Skierka

<p>The presented thesis is an examination of the mythology and literary narrative that is present within the two orchestral tone poems of Bedřich Smetana, Tábor and Blaník, and how ideas pertaining to the examination of Smetana’s compositions may be applied to my own compositional output. In my research, I propose potential source materials, and have a brief discussion about how literary narrative may be applied to musical narrative, particularly with compositions of the 19th century. In the analysis of Tábor and Blaník, I examine Smetana’s use of the chorale Kdož jsú Boží bojovníci and how he utilizes this chorale as the compositional foundation of both pieces, as well as looking at the musical elements and structure that combine to suggest narrative function being present within both compositions.  The latter portion of my thesis contains an analysis of the compositions that I wrote throughout the course of my study that were inspired by, or were direct reflections of, issues and ideas that came up during the course of my research. All of my own compositions presented are based on ideas of mythology and the presence of a literary narrative. Accompanying this analysis, are copies of the scores of my compositions.</p>


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-54

Abstract The decadal Pacific–Japan (PJ) pattern, the dominant decadal mode of summer vorticity anomaly over East Asia, is characterized as a meridionally arranged wave pattern with one anomalous cyclone located over Taiwan, and two anomalous anticyclones around the South China Sea (SCS) and the Bohai Sea. This pattern can cause wetter and colder conditions in Southeast China and dryer and warmer conditions in North China. Local SST–rainfall relationship reveals that the Maritime Continent (MC) SST can act as an engine to regulate and maintain the decadal PJ pattern. Driven by enhanced convection over the MC, anomalous divergent flows in the upper troposphere move northward, cross the equator and then converge and subside over the SCS. The SCS low-level divergence, maintained by this meridional overturning circulation under the Sverdrup vorticity balance, further works as a Rossby wave source and excites the decadal PJ pattern pointing straight northward. The transhemispheric impacts of the MC SST are well reproduced by both the atmospheric general circulation model and the dry linear baroclinic model, with the former emphasizing the MC’s original forcing role and the latter highlighting the SCS anticyclone’s role in relaying and amplifying those climatic impacts. Thus, our results indicate that SST variations over the MC region can be viewed as a potential source of East Asian decadal climate predictability.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2537
Author(s):  
Pimchanok Buapet ◽  
Sutinee Sinutok

Calcifying macroalgae contribute significantly to the structure and function of tropical marine ecosystems. Their calcification and photosynthetic processes are not well understood despite their critical role in marine carbon cycles and high vulnerability to environmental changes. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the macroalgal calcification process, focusing on its relevance concerning seawater carbonate chemistry and its relationship to photosynthesis in three dominant calcified macroalgae in Thailand, Padina boryana, Halimeda macroloba and Halimeda opuntia. Morphological and microstructural attributes of the three macroalgae were analyzed and subsequently linked to their calcification rates and responses to inhibition of photosynthesis. In the first experiment, seawater pH, total alkalinity and total dissolved inorganic carbon were measured after incubation of the macroalgae in the light and after equilibration of the seawater with air. Estimations of carbon uptake into photosynthesis and calcification and carbon release into air were obtained thereafter. Our results provide evidence that calcification of the three calcified macroalgae is a potential source of CO2, where calcification by H. opuntia and H. macroloba leads to a greater release of CO2 per biomass weight than P. boryana. Nevertheless, this capacity is expected to vary on a diurnal basis, as the second experiment indicates that calcification is highly coupled to photosynthetic activity. Lower pH as a result of inhibited photosynthesis under darkness imposes more negative effects on H. opuntia and H. macroloba than on P. boryana, implying that they are more sensitive to acidification. These effects were worsened when photosynthesis was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, highlighting the significance of photosynthetic electron transport-dependent processes. Our findings suggest that estimations of the amount of carbon stored in the vegetated marine ecosystems should account for macroalgal calcification as a potential carbon source while considering diurnal variations in photosynthesis and seawater pH in a natural setting.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sahib Zada ◽  
Wasim Sajjad ◽  
Muhammad Rafq ◽  
Sardar Ali ◽  
Zhong Hu ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

Phycology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 105-118
Author(s):  
Marcin Dębowski ◽  
Marcin Zieliński ◽  
Izabela Świca ◽  
Joanna Kazimierowicz

Algae biomass is perceived as a prospective source of many types of biofuels, including biogas and biomethane produced in the anaerobic digestion process, ethanol from alcoholic fermentation, biodiesel synthesized from lipid reserve substances, and biohydrogen generated in photobiological transformations. Environmental and economic analyses as well as technological considerations indicate that methane fermentation integrated with bio-oil recovery is one of the most justified directions of energy use of microalgae biomass for energy purposes. A promising direction in the development of bioenergy systems based on the use of microalgae is their integration with waste and pollution neutralization technologies. The use of wastewater, another liquid waste, or flue gases can reduce the costs of biofuel production while having a measurable environmental effect.


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