Adverse Effects
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2021 ◽  
I. Rajapaksha ◽  
R.G.P. Sandamini ◽  

Rapid demographic transition with higher growth in ageing population demonstrate a major societal challenge in South Asia and Sri Lankans will age faster than other developing economies in the region. Climate shocks of people living in economically deprived countries will increase in future and elders are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of temperature extremes. The study experimentally investigated free-running residential care homes in hot climate of Colombo performing simultaneous personal monitoring and questionnaire surveys. Results explicitly prove overheated indoors with less air flow. Majority of elders confirmed thermally unacceptable interiors with warm thermal sensations and low air velocities of 0.1 to 0.29 m/s with predominant preference of more air movement proves inadequate passive airflow. A significant relationship between wind preference and presence of openings of their place of stay were evident. Staying away from a window or door instigated to practice a behavioural adaptation of moving towards transitional areas such as corridors, verandas, and outdoor spaces for more wind sensation. Since ageing is associated with physical inabilities and elders spend their life mostly in indoors, findings emphasize the importance of enhancing passive airflow and application of appropriate design strategies to ensure optimum air velocities and dispersion of airflow within interiors.

Becky Siu Yin Li ◽  
Carmen Wing Han Chan ◽  
Minjie Li ◽  
Irene Kit Yee Wong ◽  
Yvonne Hoi Un Yu

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is the most prominent and distressing manifestation for older persons with dementia (PWD) and caregivers. Aromatherapy has demonstrated its effectiveness in managing BPSD in various studies. However, previous studies and systematic reviews have obtained inconsistent findings, and a review of qualitative studies is yet to be conducted. <b><i>Method:</i></b> A mixed-methods systematic review with a convergent segregated approach was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy in improving the BPSD and quality of life (QoL) of PWD and in relieving the distress and burden of caregivers, as well as its safety for PWD. Both published and unpublished quantitative and qualitative studies written in English and Chinese between January 1996 and December 2020 were retrieved from 28 databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science, based on the prespecified criteria. The methodological quality was assessed by using critical appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Quantitative synthesis, qualitative synthesis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative evidence were performed. <b><i>Results:</i></b> A total of 12 randomized controlled trials, 10 quasi-experimental studies, and 2 qualitative studies were included in the review. Some inconsistent findings regarding the effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing the severity of BPSD were observed. Some studies reported that aromatherapy significantly improved the QoL of PWD and relieved the distress and burden of caregivers, promoted a positive experience among caregivers, and had very low adverse effects on PWD (with aromatherapy inhalation reporting no adverse effects). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Aromatherapy, especially in the inhalation approach, could be a potentially safe and effective strategy for managing BPSD. However, more structuralized and comparable studies with sufficient sample size, adherence monitoring, and sound theoretical basis could be conducted to obtain conclusive findings.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
A.P. Magnoli ◽  
V. Poloni ◽  
L.A. Cristofolini ◽  
C.I. Merkis ◽  
F.M. Escobar ◽  

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and monensin (MONS) interaction on the liver and intestinal histological changes in poultry, and the influence of Pichia kudriavzevii RC001. One-day-old commercial line (Ross 308) broilers (n=120) were individually weighed and randomly assigned to 8 treatments (15 broilers/treatment, 5 broilers per cage and 3 replicates/treatment). The experimental diets were: Group 1: basal diet (BD); Group 2: BD + MONS (50 mg/kg); Group 3: BD + P. kudriavzevii RC001 (1 g/kg); Group 4: BD + AFB1 (100 μg/kg); Group 5: BD + MONS + P. kudriavzevii RC001; Group 6: BD + AFB1 + P. kudriavzevii RC001; Group 7: BD + AFB1 + MONS + P. kudriavzevii RC001; Group 8: BD + AFB1 + MONS. When MONS was added, the typical AFB1 macroscopic and microscopic alterations were intensified. The P. kudriavzevii RC001 cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays with Vero cells and with broiler chicken’s erythrocytes, demonstrated that P. kudriavzevii RC001 neither were non-cytotoxic nor genotoxic. When MONS was added in the presence of P. kudriavzevii RC001, the toxic effect of AFB1 on liver was not prevented. When P. kudriavzevii was present alone, the same prevention of the pathological damage was observed in the intestine of poultry fed with AFB1. The smallest apparent absorption area was obtained when AFB1 and MONS were added in the feed (P<0.05). AFB1 and MONS interaction demonstrated important toxic effects. Although P. kudriavzevii was effective in ameliorating the adverse effects of AFB1 alone on liver pathology and gut morphology, it was not able to diminish the toxic effects of AFB1 in presence of MONS. It suggests that P. kudriavzevii could be used as feed additive or counteracting the toxic effects of AFB1 in poultry production in the absence of MONS.

Jayant Yadav ◽  
Poonam Jasrotia ◽  
Ajay Kumar Bhardwaj ◽  
Prem Lal Kashyap ◽  
Sudheer Kumar ◽  

 Nanotechnology is a rapidly evolving field that has the potential to revolutionise food systems and counter the present-day challenge of food security. It envisages taking agriculture from the era of indiscriminate natural resource use and environmental degradation to the brave new world of advanced systems with enhanced material use efficiency and targeted applications to reduce crop losses caused due to abiotic-biotic stresses as well as to give due considerations to the environment. To manage plant diseases and insect pests, pesticides are inevitably used in agriculture. However, the higher dosage of these chemicals on a per hectare basis has resulted in many environmental and health hazards. To tackle the conventional pesticide related issues, a new field of science called nanotechnology has led to the development of nanopesticides that have less active ingredients, but better efficiency. The nanopesticides contain the carrier molecule or the active nanosized ingredient with a very high surface area to the volume property that provides them unique exploitable-advantages. Several formulations, viz., nanoemulsions, nanosuspensions, nanogels, metal compound-based nanopesticides, have been developed for different modes of action and vivid applications. The biggest advantage comes due to the small size of the particles that help in properly spreading the ingredients on the pest surface and, thus, producing a better action than conventional pesticides. The use of nanoparticles in the form of nanopesticides, nanofertilisers, and nano delivery systems is on the increase day by day due to their higher efficiency and reduced dosage requirements. However, human beings and other organisms are also getting exposed to the nano-entities during the application or afterwards. The interactions of these engineered nano-entities with biological systems are relatively unknown thus far. Therefore, before their wider usage in crop production and protection, a better understanding of their interactions, and adverse effects, if any, is also crucial for a sustainable transition.  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260980
Junko Nagai ◽  
Yoichi Ishikawa

Introduction Anticholinergic adverse effects (AEs) are a problem for elderly people. This study aimed to answer the following questions. First, is an analysis of anticholinergic AEs using spontaneous adverse drug event databases possible? Second, what is the main drug suspected of inducing anticholinergic AEs in the databases? Third, do database differences yield different results? Methods We used two databases: the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System database (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database (JADER) recorded from 2004 to 2020. We defined three types of anticholinergic AEs: central nervous system (CNS) AEs, peripheral nervous system (PNS) AEs, and a combination of these AEs. We counted the number of cases and evaluated the ratio of drug–anticholinergic AE pairs between FAERS and JADER. We computed reporting odds ratios (RORs) and assessed the drugs using Beers Criteria®. Results Constipation was the most reported AE in FAERS. The ratio of drug–anticholinergic AE pairs was statistically significantly larger in FAERS than JADER. Overactive bladder agents were suspected drugs common to both databases. Other drugs differed between the two databases. CNS AEs were associated with antidementia drugs in FAERS and opioids in JADER. In the assessment using Beers Criteria®, signals were detected for almost all drugs. Between the two databases, a significantly higher positive correlation was observed for PNS AEs (correlation coefficient 0.85, P = 0.0001). The ROR was significantly greater in JADER. Conclusions There are many methods to investigate AEs. This study shows that the analysis of anticholinergic AEs using spontaneous adverse drug event databases is possible. From this analysis, various suspected drugs were detected. In particular, FAERS had many cases. The differences in the results between the two databases may reflect differences in the reporting countries. Further study of the relationship between drugs and CNS AEs should be conducted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 34-47
Sumathy. T ◽  
Maheshkumar V.P ◽  
Jaikumar. S

Lipids are the major contributors of taste, texture and energy of a diet. Changes in the intake of dietary fats bring about varied serum cholesterol levels as well the other factors that cause risk of chronic diseases. It has been established over years that the risk of CAD and other chronic health problems are not significantly influenced by the dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs). Many recent researches also reported that the SFAs present in dairy products and coconut oil are very helpful in improving the health of an individual. Even though enhancement of inflammation and augmentation of the chronic ailments by V6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported widely, the V3 PUFA’s take the other side and act to counter the ill effects. Obesity and other associated health issues arise mainly due to the use of diets rich in carbohydrates instead of saturated fats. The benefits of replacing these carbohydrates and others with alternative nutrients have been well established with known mechanisms which bring down the adverse effects. The quality of fat may bring about chronic degenerative effects in the later stages. The use of fat and its types is shifted towards a pattern of healthy diet wherein the food may include a variety of different fats even at high levels. The present scenario of the researches in public health is mainly centered with the analysis of the association between dietary fat, level and quality, its impact on the risk of chronic diseases and cure. Thus, this review focuses on the need to re-examine the use of dietary fats and their clinical implications.

Showkat Ahmad Ganie ◽  
Javaid Akhter Bhat ◽  
Alessandra Devoto

Abstract Key Message Endophytes are crucial for the promotion of rice growth and stress tolerance and can be used to increase rice crop yield. Endophytes can thus be exploited in biotechnology and genetic engineering as eco-friendly and cost-effective means for the development of high-yielding and stress-tolerant rice plants. Abstract Rice (Oryza sativa) crop is continuously subjected to biotic and abiotic stresses, compromising growth and consequently yield. The situation is exacerbated by climate change impacting on ecosystems and biodiversity. Genetic engineering has been used to develop stress-tolerant rice, alongside physical and chemical methods to mitigate the effect of these stresses. However, the success of these strategies has been hindered by short-lived field success and public concern on adverse effects associated. The limited success in the field of stress-tolerant cultivars developed through breeding or transgenic approaches is due to the complex nature of stress tolerance as well as to the resistance breakdown caused by accelerated evolution of pathogens. It is therefore necessary to develop novel and acceptable strategies to enhance rice stress tolerance and durable resistance and consequently improve yield. In the last decade, plant growth promoting (PGP) microbes, especially endophytes, have drawn the attention of agricultural scientists worldwide, due to their ability to mitigate environmental stresses in crops, without causing adverse effects. Increasing evidence indicates that endophytes effectively confer fitness benefits also to rice under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Endophyte-produced metabolites can control the expression of stress-responsive genes and improve the physiological performance and growth of rice plants. This review highlights the current evidence available for PGP microbe-promoted tolerance of rice to abiotic stresses such as salinity and drought and to biotic ones, with special emphasis on endophytes. Associated molecular mechanisms are illustrated, and prospects for sustainable rice production also in the light of the impending climate change, discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yong-Jun Liu ◽  
Zhongwang Jing ◽  
Xue-Ting Bai ◽  
Qing-Yun Diao ◽  
Jichen Wang ◽  

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) can be exposed via numerous potential pathways to ambient nanoparticles (NPs), including rare earth oxide (REO) NPs that are increasingly used and released into the environment. Gut microorganisms are pivotal in mediating honeybee health, but how REO NPs may affect honeybee health and gut microbiota remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, honeybees were fed pollen and sucrose syrup containing 0, 1, 10, 100, and 1000mgkg−1 of nano-La2O3 for 12days. Nano-La2O3 exerted detrimental effects on honeybee physiology, as reflected by dose-dependent adverse effects of nano-La2O3 on survival, pollen consumption, and body weight (p&lt;0.05). Nano-La2O3 caused the dysbiosis of honeybee gut bacterial communities, as evidenced by the change of gut bacterial community composition, the enrichment of pathogenic Serratia and Frischella, and the alteration of digestion-related taxa Bombella (p&lt;0.05). There were significant correlations between honeybee physiological parameters and the relative abundances of pathogenic Serratia and Frischella (p&lt;0.05), underscoring linkages between honeybee health and gut bacterial communities. Taken together, this study demonstrates that nano-La2O3 can cause detrimental effects on honeybee health, potentially by disordering gut bacterial communities. This study thus reveals a previously overlooked effect of nano-La2O3 on the ecologically and economically important honeybee species Apis mellifera.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Meara H. Faw ◽  
Taylor Buley ◽  
Laura Healey Malinin

This co-design study examined salutogenic potential of mobile virtual reality (VR) experiences as an alternative to participation in a community-based symphonic engagement program (B Sharp), previously found to benefit people with dementia (PWD) and their informal caregivers. Six focus groups were conducted with sixteen adults aged 76–90; three participants had dementia, and two were informal spousal caregivers. No participants had prior VR experience. The study assessed the feasibility of replicating the community-based-arts program in VR, with the goal of enhancing its salutogenic qualities (e.g., positive distraction, engagement, and social connection). Video-recordings of participants while using a mobile head-mounted display (HMD) were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis to compare perceptions of different virtual experiences, including replication or enhancement of B Sharp and a campus tour. Findings suggest participants had positive perceptions of enhanced VR experiences with no adverse effects, although PWD were less enthusiastic and HMD usability was complicated by eyewear use and comfort with technology. Participants reacted most favorably to the enhanced symphonic experience, where they were “virtually” onstage during the performance, suggesting unique experiences beyond what is possible in the real world have the greatest potential for deep immersion for older adults. Results suggest VR has strong potential to replicate and enhance salutogenic qualities of community-based programming by enabling greater access to experiences for older adults and by increasing enjoyment and engagement through experiences not otherwise feasible. Furthermore, this study illuminates advantages of a user-centered, co-design approach when developing VR experiences with community partners and older adults.


Anti-bacterial are agents that inhibit bacterial growth or kills bacteria and are a sub-type of antimicrobials. These are drugs used to treat infections, but they sometimes pose a threat of adverse events. Some of these adverse events are neuropsychiatric, which are generally hard to diagnose and is often paid less attention. They account for about 30% of total Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) caused by drugs in patients without mental abnormalities. The spectrum ranges from episodes of seizure to acute psychosis. The article emphasizes the frequency of such adverse events and means to raise awareness among medical practitioners regarding the same. The various neuropsychiatric adverse effects and the agents responsible have been reviewed, along with their possible mechanisms and general management. The information for writing this review was selected by searching for keywords such as Neurotoxicity, GABA, Psychosis, Naranjo scale, and Antibiomania in databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Elsevier, etc. After searching the articles in the above-mentioned databases, the articles were screened concerning their importance with our work and according to their title and abstract. Additional articles were discovered by checking the references in the current study's citations. Using this method, the various neuropsychiatric adverse effects of Antibacterial agents were summarized in this review.

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