Journal of Medical Internet Research
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Published By Jmir Publications Inc.


10.2196/31664 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e31664
Jaegyeong Lee ◽  
Jung Min Lim

Background The prevalence and economic burden of dementia are increasing dramatically. Using information communication technology to improve cognitive functions is proven to be effective and holds the potential to serve as a new and efficient method for the prevention of dementia. Objective The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the experience of mobile apps for cognitive training in middle-aged adults. We evaluated the relationships between the experience of cognitive training apps and structural variables using an extended health belief model. Methods An online survey was conducted on South Korean participants aged 40 to 64 years (N=320). General characteristics and dementia knowledge were measured along with the health belief model constructs. Statistical analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Higher dementia knowledge (odds ratio [OR] 1.164, P=.02), higher perceived benefit (OR 1.373, P<.001), female gender (OR 0.499, P=.04), and family history of dementia (OR 1.933, P=.04) were significantly associated with the experience of cognitive training apps for the prevention of dementia. Conclusions This study may serve as a theoretical basis for the development of intervention strategies to increase the use of cognitive training apps for the prevention of dementia.

10.2196/32939 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e32939
Han Shi Jocelyn Chew ◽  
Palakorn Achananuparp

Background Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health care service delivery. However, the perceptions and needs of such systems remain elusive, hindering efforts to promote AI adoption in health care. Objective This study aims to provide an overview of the perceptions and needs of AI to increase its adoption in health care. Methods A systematic scoping review was conducted according to the 5-stage framework by Arksey and O’Malley. Articles that described the perceptions and needs of AI in health care were searched across nine databases: ACM Library, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, Embase, IEEE Xplore, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies that were published from inception until June 21, 2021. Articles that were not specific to AI, not research studies, and not written in English were omitted. Results Of the 3666 articles retrieved, 26 (0.71%) were eligible and included in this review. The mean age of the participants ranged from 30 to 72.6 years, the proportion of men ranged from 0% to 73.4%, and the sample sizes for primary studies ranged from 11 to 2780. The perceptions and needs of various populations in the use of AI were identified for general, primary, and community health care; chronic diseases self-management and self-diagnosis; mental health; and diagnostic procedures. The use of AI was perceived to be positive because of its availability, ease of use, and potential to improve efficiency and reduce the cost of health care service delivery. However, concerns were raised regarding the lack of trust in data privacy, patient safety, technological maturity, and the possibility of full automation. Suggestions for improving the adoption of AI in health care were highlighted: enhancing personalization and customizability; enhancing empathy and personification of AI-enabled chatbots and avatars; enhancing user experience, design, and interconnectedness with other devices; and educating the public on AI capabilities. Several corresponding mitigation strategies were also identified in this study. Conclusions The perceptions and needs of AI in its use in health care are crucial in improving its adoption by various stakeholders. Future studies and implementations should consider the points highlighted in this study to enhance the acceptability and adoption of AI in health care. This would facilitate an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of health care service delivery to improve patient outcomes and satisfaction.

10.2196/32362 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e32362
David Thivel ◽  
Alice Corteval ◽  
Jean-Marie Favreau ◽  
Emmanuel Bergeret ◽  
Ludovic Samalin ◽  

Methods to measure physical activity and sedentary behaviors typically quantify the amount of time devoted to these activities. Among patients with chronic diseases, these methods can provide interesting behavioral information, but generally do not capture detailed body motion and fine movement behaviors. Fine detection of motion may provide additional information about functional decline that is of clinical interest in chronic diseases. This perspective paper highlights the need for more developed and sophisticated tools to better identify and track the decomposition, structuration, and sequencing of the daily movements of humans. The primary goal is to provide a reliable and useful clinical diagnostic and predictive indicator of the stage and evolution of chronic diseases, in order to prevent related comorbidities and complications among patients.

10.2196/25863 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e25863
Antonia Hyman ◽  
Elizabeth Stacy ◽  
Humaira Mohsin ◽  
Kaitlin Atkinson ◽  
Kurtis Stewart ◽  

Background South Asian community members in Canada experience a higher burden of chronic disease than the general population. Digital health innovations provide a significant opportunity to address various health care challenges such as supporting patients in their disease self-management. However, South Asian community members are less likely to use digital tools for their health and face significant barriers in accessing them because of language or cultural factors. Objective The aim of this study is to understand the barriers to and facilitators of digital health tool uptake experienced by South Asian community members residing in Canada. Methods This study used a qualitative community-based participatory action research approach. Residents from Surrey, British Columbia, Canada, who spoke 1 of 4 South Asian languages (Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, or Tamil) were invited to participate in focus group discussions. A subsample of the participants were invited to use photovoice methods in greater depth to explore the research topics. Results A total of 197 participants consented to the focus group discussions, with 12 (6.1%) participating in the photovoice phase. The findings revealed several key obstacles (older age, lack of education, and poor digital health literacy) and facilitators (social support from family or community members and positive attitudes toward technology) to using digital health tools. Conclusions The results support the value of using a community-based participatory action research approach and photovoice methods to engage the South Asian community in Canada to better understand digital health competencies and needs. There were several important implications for policy makers and future research, such as continued engagement of community leaders by health care providers and administrators to learn about attitudes and preferences.

10.2196/25983 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e25983
Thijs Devriendt ◽  
Pascal Borry ◽  
Mahsa Shabani

Background The European Commission is funding projects that aim to establish data-sharing platforms. These platforms are envisioned to enhance and facilitate the international sharing of cohort data. Nevertheless, broad data sharing may be restricted by the lack of adequate recognition for those who share data. Objective The aim of this study is to describe in depth the concerns about acquiring credit for data sharing within epidemiological research. Methods A total of 17 participants linked to European Union–funded data-sharing platforms were recruited for a semistructured interview. Transcripts were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results Interviewees argued that data sharing within international projects could challenge authorship guidelines in multiple ways. Some respondents considered that the acquisition of credit for articles with extensive author lists could be problematic in some instances, such as for junior researchers. In addition, universities may be critical of researchers who share data more often than leading research. Some considered that the evaluation system undervalues data generators and specialists. Respondents generally looked favorably upon alternatives to the current evaluation system to potentially ameliorate these issues. Conclusions The evaluation system might impede data sharing because it mainly focuses on first and last authorship and undervalues the contributor’s work. Further movement of crediting models toward contributorship could potentially address this issue. Appropriate crediting mechanisms that are better aligned with the way science ought to be conducted in the future need to be developed.

10.2196/30026 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e30026
Natalie Winter ◽  
Lahiru Russell ◽  
Anna Ugalde ◽  
Victoria White ◽  
Patricia Livingston

Background Web-based mindfulness programs may be beneficial in improving the well-being outcomes of those living with chronic illnesses. Adherence to programs is a key indicator in improving outcomes; however, with the digitization of programs, it is necessary to enhance engagement and encourage people to return to digital health platforms. More information is needed on how engagement strategies have been used in web-based mindfulness programs to encourage adherence. Objective The aim of this study is to develop a list of engagement strategies for web-based mindfulness programs and evaluate the impact of engagement strategies on adherence. Methods A narrative systematic review was conducted across the MEDLINE Complete, CINAHL Complete, APA PsycINFO, and Embase databases and followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. Articles were screened using the population, intervention, comparator, and outcome framework. Adults aged >18 years with chronic health conditions were included in the study. Mindfulness interventions, including those in combination with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, delivered on the web through the internet or smartphone technology were included. Interventions lasted at least 2 weeks. Studies with a randomized controlled trial design or a pilot randomized controlled trial design were included. Engagement strategies, including web-based program features and facilitator-led strategies, adherence, and retention, were included. Results A total of 1265 articles were screened, of which 19 were relevant and were included in the review. On average, 70.98% (2258/3181) of the study participants were women with a mean age of 46 (SD 13) years. Most commonly, mindfulness programs were delivered to people living with mental health conditions (8/19, 42%). Of the 19 studies, 8 (42%) used only program features to encourage adherence, 5 (26%) used facilitator-led strategies, and 6 (32%) used a combination of the two. Encouraging program adherence was the most common engagement strategy used, which was used in 77% (10/13) of the facilitator-led studies and 57% (8/14) of the program feature studies. Nearly two-thirds (63%) of the studies provided a definition of adherence, which varied between 50% and 100% completion across studies. The overall mean participant compliance to the mindfulness programs was 56% (SD 15%). Most studies (10/19, 53%) had a long-term follow-up, with the most common follow-up period being 12 weeks after intervention (3/10, 30%). After the intervention, the mean retention was 78% (SD 15%). Conclusions Engagement strategies in web-based mindfulness programs comprise reminders to use the program. Other features may be suitable for encouraging adherence to interventions, and a facilitator-led component may result in higher retention. There is variance in the way adherence is measured, and intervention lengths and follow-up periods are inconsistent. More thorough reporting and a standardized framework for measuring adherence are needed to more accurately assess adherence and engagement strategies.

10.2196/25792 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e25792
Ophélie Wilczynski ◽  
Anthony Boisbouvier ◽  
Lise Radoszycki ◽  
François-Emery Cotté ◽  
Anne-Françoise Gaudin ◽  

Background New cancer treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), can improve survival and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with cancer. Although long-term monitoring of HRQoL has been shown to improve survival, integration of HRQoL into everyday practice remains poorly documented. Objective This study describes experiences and expectations of patients treated with ICIs regarding a discussion of HRQoL with health care professionals (HCPs) in cancer management. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in an online patient community (Carenity) in France. Patients treated with ICIs for cancer, included between September 2018 and January 2019, completed a questionnaire to assess the involvement of HCP in a discussion of HRQoL and when and what was discussed. Results Of 82 patients included (mean age: 56.9 years, 95% CI 54.2-59.6; 46 [56%] male; 34 [41%] with lung cancer), 62 (76%) reported discussing HRQoL at least once with HCPs, mainly general practitioners (54/82, 66%), oncologists (53/82, 65%), and hospital nurses (50/82, 61%). Around half (45/82, 55%) of the patients were satisfied with these discussions. Discussions with the oncologist were at the patient’s initiative (34/53, 64%). Discussions occurred primarily during follow-up visits (40/62, 65%), when adverse events occurred (30/62, 48%), and at treatment initiation (27/62, 32%). The most discussed dimensions were symptoms (48/62, 77%) and physical well-being (43/62, 69%). With respect to expectations, 54/82 (66%) patients considered oncologists as the most important HCPs for discussing HRQoL. These discussions were desirable throughout the care pathway, particularly at diagnosis (63/82, 77%) and when treatment was initiated (75/82, 92%) or changed (68/82, 83%). All HRQoL dimensions were considered important to discuss. Conclusions With only around half of the patients satisfied with HRQoL discussions, impactful HRQoL integration in clinical practice is critical. According to patients, this integration should involve mainly oncologists and general practitioners, should happen at every step of the care pathway, and should be extended to dimensions that are currently rarely addressed.

10.2196/33873 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e33873
Andre Q Andrade ◽  
Jean-Pierre Calabretto ◽  
Nicole L Pratt ◽  
Lisa M Kalisch-Ellett ◽  
Gizat M Kassie ◽  

Background Digital technologies can enable rapid targeted delivery of audit and feedback interventions at scale. Few studies have evaluated how mode of delivery affects clinical professional behavior change and none have assessed the feasibility of such an initiative at a national scale. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the effect of audit and feedback by digital versus postal (letter) mode of delivery on primary care physician behavior. Methods This study was developed as part of the Veterans’ Medicines Advice and Therapeutics Education Services (MATES) program, an intervention funded by the Australian Government Department of Veterans’ Affairs that provides targeted education and patient-specific audit with feedback to Australian general practitioners, as well as educational material to veterans and other health professionals. We performed a cluster randomized controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention to reduce inappropriate gabapentinoid prescription, comparing digital and postal mode of delivery. All veteran patients targeted also received an educational intervention (postal delivery). Efficacy was measured using a linear mixed-effects model as the average number of gabapentinoid prescriptions standardized by defined daily dose (individual level), and number of veterans visiting a psychologist in the 6 and 12 months following the intervention. Results The trial involved 2552 general practitioners in Australia and took place in March 2020. Both intervention groups had a significant reduction in total gabapentinoid prescription by the end of the study period (digital: mean reduction of 11.2%, P=.004; postal: mean reduction of 11.2%, P=.001). We found no difference between digital and postal mode of delivery in reduction of gabapentinoid prescriptions at 12 months (digital: –0.058, postal: –0.058, P=.98). Digital delivery increased initiations to psychologists at 12 months (digital: 3.8%, postal: 2.0%, P=.02). Conclusions Our digitally delivered professional behavior change intervention was feasible, had comparable effectiveness to the postal intervention with regard to changes in medicine use, and had increased effectiveness with regard to referrals to a psychologist. Given the logistical benefits of digital delivery in nationwide programs, the results encourage exploration of this mode in future interventions.

10.2196/27952 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e27952
Ahmed Shaikh ◽  
Abhishek Bhatia ◽  
Ghanshyam Yadav ◽  
Shashwat Hora ◽  
Chung Won ◽  

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, digital health tools have been deployed by governments around the world to advance clinical and population health objectives. Few interventions have been successful or have achieved sustainability or scale. In India, government agencies are proposing sweeping changes to India’s digital health architecture. Underpinning these initiatives is the assumption that mobile health solutions will find near universal acceptance and uptake, though the observed reticence of clinicians to use electronic health records suggests otherwise. In this practice article, we describe our experience with implementing a digital surveillance tool at a large mass gathering, attended by nearly 30 million people. Deployed with limited resources and in a dynamic chaotic setting, the adherence to human-centered design principles resulted in near universal adoption and high end-user satisfaction. Through this use case, we share generalizable lessons in the importance of contextual relevance, stakeholder participation, customizability, and rapid iteration, while designing digital health tools for individuals or populations.

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