outcome evaluation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 427
Jonathan Steinhäuser ◽  
Gerd Fabian Volk ◽  
Jovanna Thielker ◽  
Maren Geitner ◽  
Anna-Maria Kuttenreich ◽  

To determine treatment and outcome in a tertiary multidisciplinary facial nerve center, a retrospective observational study was performed of all patients referred between 2007 and 2018. Facial grading with the Stennert index, the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) scale, and the Facial Disability Index (FDI) were used for outcome evaluation; 1220 patients (58.4% female, median age: 50 years; chronic palsy: 42.8%) were included. Patients with acute and chronic facial palsy were treated in the center for a median of 3.6 months and 10.8 months, respectively. Dominant treatment in the acute phase was glucocorticoids ± acyclovir (47.2%), followed by a significant improvement of all outcome measures (p < 0.001). Facial EMG biofeedback training (21.3%) and botulinum toxin injections (11%) dominated the treatment in the chronic phase, all leading to highly significant improvements according to facial grading, FDI, and FaCE (p < 0.001). Upper eyelid weight (3.8%) and hypoglossal–facial-nerve jump suture (2.5%) were the leading surgical methods, followed by improvement of facial motor function (p < 0.001) and facial-specific quality of life (FDI, FaCE; p < 0.05). A standardized multidisciplinary team approach in a facial nerve center leads to improved facial and emotional function in patients with acute or chronic facial palsy.

Hans Ludwig ◽  
Steffi Dreha-Kulaczewski ◽  
Christoph Bock

Purpose: ETV is indicated for treating obstructions of major CSF pathways. The outcome evaluation often yields success rates of only +- 70% for shunt independency. Hence, compromised CSF absorption seems to occur more often than expected. We searched for parameters suitable to assess the involved CSF dynamics. Material and Methods: This was a prospective study in 58 paediatric patients (7.7 yrs. mean age) between 2000 and 2020 with aqueductal stenosis (11/58), obstruction of the aqueduct due to tumor growth (22/58),and connatal hydrocephalus (9/58). The average follow-up interval was 4.7 years. Head circumferences, Evans- and fronto-occipital horn ratios before and 3 months after ETV were obtained as Delta-indices. Furthermore ETV success score (ETVSS), the patency of the aqueduct pre- and postoperatively as well as of the stoma were assessed by flow void signs on MRI. Evaluation on MRI also included the shape of the floor of the 3rd ventricle and whether or not the septum pellucidum showed signs of perforation. Four patients were analysed pre- and postoperatively via real-time MRI. At least the educational status regarding protected or unprotected education was analyzed. Results:The prevalence of a bowing of the floor of the 3rd ventricle was 72%, and the ETVSS was 71.0%. In 26 children a septal perforations or an open aqueduct prior to ETV (19) could be identified. Mean ER and FOHR were reduced by 0.03 and 0.05 , respectively. Maintained open (flow void on postop MRI) or perforation could successfully be carried out during endoscopic surgery in 44 patients (79%). The disproportionate increase of head circumference abated in 79.4% of patients. New shunt insertion occurred in 16 patients (27.5%). Intraoperatively upward CSF flow was detected in all cases. Statistical analyses(ANOVA) showed significant results for unprotected education, postoperative ER and FOHR but not for open stoma. Conclusion: The identification of flow through the stoma on postoperative MRI seems to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for ETV success. In our study, ventricular volumes were used as parameters to determine success rates as well as unprotected education. Furthermore, enabling upward CSF flow driven by inspiration seems crucial for successful ETV.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Nirukshi Perera ◽  
Komla Tsey ◽  
Marion Heyeres ◽  
Mary Whiteside ◽  
Leslie Baird ◽  

Abstract Background An Aboriginal-developed empowerment and social and emotional wellbeing program, known as Family Wellbeing (FWB), has been found to strengthen the protective factors that help Indigenous Australians to deal with the legacy of colonisation and intergenerational trauma. This article reviews the research that has accompanied the implementation of the program, over a 23 year period. The aim is to assess the long-term impact of FWB research and identify the key enablers of research impact and the limitations of the impact assessment exercise. This will inform more comprehensive monitoring of research impact into the future. Methods To assess impact, the study took an implementation science approach, incorporating theory of change and service utilisation frameworks, to create a logic model underpinned by Indigenous research principles. A research impact narrative was developed based on mixed methods analysis of publicly available data on: 1) FWB program participation; 2) research program funding; 3) program outcome evaluation (nine studies); and 4) accounts of research utilisation (seven studies). Results  Starting from a need for research on empowerment identified by research users, an investment of $2.3 million in research activities over 23 years produced a range of research outputs that evidenced social and emotional wellbeing benefits arising from participation in the FWB program. Accounts of research utilisation confirmed the role of research outputs in educating participants about the program, and thus, facilitating more demand (and funding acquisition) for FWB. Overall research contributed to 5,405 recorded participants accessing the intervention. The key enablers of research impact were; 1) the research was user- and community-driven; 2) a long-term mutually beneficial partnership between research users and researchers; 3) the creation of a body of knowledge that demonstrated the impact of the FWB intervention via different research methods; 4) the universality of the FWB approach which led to widespread application. Conclusions The FWB research impact exercise reinforced the view that assessing research impact is best approached as a “wicked problem” for which there are no easy fixes. It requires flexible, open-ended, collaborative learning-by-doing approaches to build the evidence base over time. Steps and approaches that research groups might take to build the research impact knowledge base within their disciplines are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
T. Thyson ◽  
M. Schallenburger ◽  
A. Scherg ◽  
A. Leister ◽  
J. Schwartz ◽  

Abstract Background information As part of an elective course, the Interdisciplinary Centre for Palliative Medicine at Duesseldorf University Hospital offers medical students the opportunity to personally meet and talk to a seriously ill patient on one or more occasions. The future physicians are provided with an opportunity to broaden their professional competence, i.e. their knowledge and skills in patient-centred communication at the end of life, and enhance their personal competence, for example in how to professionally handle their own emotions. A topical e-learning module helps the students to prepare for the meetings, and writing a reflection paper forms the basis for the concluding reflection seminar. Objectives The study’s objective is a global and outcome-based evaluation of the elective blended-learning course that provides real-world patient interaction. The outcome-based evaluation or outcome assessment aims to objectively evaluate changes identified in knowledge, skills and attitude among the participants of the elective-course. Furthermore, the evaluation aims to answer the question of whether changes especially in attitude (social skills and self-competence) should be expected after the students have met with severely ill or dying patients. Method On two questionnaires specifically developed for this survey the students were able to provide a global rating of the elective course and describe their learning gains in palliative care. The students’ learning gains were measured by means of 14 items reflecting the specific educational objectives of the offered elective course. Using the German school grading system as a rating scale, the students assessed their learning progress by retrospectively evaluating their skills before and after completion of the elective course (Comparative Self-Assessment, CSA). Results In the time from April 2018 till March 2020, 62 students participated in the evaluation. Overall, learning progress among students could be observed across all areas of competence, and in 50% of all retrospective self-assessment items the learning gains were ≥ 50%. The highest learning gain (63.6%) was observed in the students’ ability to meet a severely ill patient without fear. The lowest learning gain was observed when students had to confront and accept their own mortality. Conclusions The offered elective course supports students in achieving social and self-competence development goals. According to the obtained results, contact with real-world patients helps mould the students’ attitude.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Yong Cui ◽  
Jason D. Robinson ◽  
Rudel E. Rymer ◽  
Jennifer A. Minnix ◽  
Paul M. Cinciripini

With the increasing availability of smartphones, many tobacco researchers are exploring smartphone-delivered mobile smoking interventions as a disseminable means of treatment. Most effort has been focused on the development of smartphone applications (apps) to conduct mobile smoking research to implement and validate these interventions. However, developing project-specific smartphone apps that work across multiple mobile platforms (e.g., iOS and Android) can be costly and time-consuming. Here, using a hypothetical study, we present an alternate approach to demonstrate how mobile smoking cessation and outcome evaluation can be conducted without the need of a dedicated app. Our approach uses the Qualtrics platform, a popular online survey host that is used under license by many academic institutions. This platform allows researchers to conduct device-agnostic screening, consenting, and administration of questionnaires through Qualtrics's native survey engine. Researchers can also collect ecological momentary assessment data using text messaging prompts with the incorporation of Amazon Web Services' Pinpoint. Besides these assessment capabilities, Qualtrics has the potential for delivering personalized behavioral interventions through the use of JavaScript code. By customizing the question's web elements in Qualtrics (e.g., using texts, images, videos, and buttons), researchers can integrate interactive web-based interventions and complicated behavioral and cognitive tasks into the survey. In conclusion, this Qualtrics-based methodology represents a novel and cost-effective approach for conducting mobile smoking cessation and assessment research.

2021 ◽  
pp. 155708512110659
Linsey A. Belisle ◽  
Emily J. Salisbury ◽  
Jaclyn Keen

The current study is an outcome evaluation of the gender-responsive program, Girls...Moving On (GMO). Outcomes for treatment ( n = 135) and control group ( n = 135) participants reflected mixed findings, with no significant reductions in recidivism, which may have been due to problems with implementation. Nevertheless, girls who completed the program had significantly larger reductions in risk scores and increases in strength scores compare to non-completers, but little to no differences in recidivism. Additionally, GMO completers showed improvements in self-efficacy scores. Several implications and considerations regarding the outcomes are discussed to guide future gender-responsive programs for system-impacted girls.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 175
Joanna Przeździecka-Dołyk ◽  
Ewa Wałek ◽  
Agnieszka Jóźwik ◽  
Iwona Helemejko ◽  
Magdalena Asejczyk-Widlicka ◽  

Purpose: Little is known about short-term changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) following minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries, such as post-XEN GelStent implantation. Although the importance of corneal biomechanics in glaucoma diagnostics has been reported, little work has been conducted on postoperative description of changes when the structure of the anterior segment is altered. The aim of presented study was to evaluate the changes in the biomechanical parameters of the anterior segment of the post-XEN GelStent implantation eyes. Patients and Methods: This investigator-initiated, open-label, prospective, single-center study recruited patients. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) after XEN GelStent implantation versus matched POAG controls (considered as control group/CG) treated pharmacologically were screened. Water loading was conducted using 10 mL of water per kilogram of body weight for ≤5 min. Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), corneal hysteresis (CH), and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were performed before water loading and after every 15 min up to 1 h. Results: The water drinking test (WDT) was positive in 3.7% (1 out of 27) of patients in the post-XEN group compared with 22.7% (5 out of 22) of patients in the control group (CG; p < 0.05). Mean fluctuations in GAT during the WDT were higher in the CG group (3.6 ± 2.5 mmHg vs. 2.9 ± 1.3 mmHg, p < 0.001). CRF and CH changed significantly only in the post-XEN group. The mean peak of CH and CRF occurred at 15 and 30 min of the test in the post-XEN group (p = 0.001). Conclusion: WDT is important to assess the ability of compensation mechanisms to reduce fluctuations in IOP after water upload. The relationship between biomechanics of the anterior segment and glaucoma may have substantial impact on surgical outcome evaluation.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260951
Sarah M. Khayyat ◽  
Zachariah Nazar ◽  
Hamde Nazar

Background Hospital to community pharmacy transfer of care medicines-related interventions for inpatients discharged home aim to improve continuity of care and patient outcomes. One such intervention has been provided for seven years within a region in England. This study reports upon the implementation process and fidelity of this intervention. Methods The process evaluation guidance issued by the Medical Research Council has informed this study. A logic model to describe the intervention and causal assumptions was developed from preliminary semi-structured interviews with project team members. Further semi-structured interviews were undertaken with intervention providers from hospital and community pharmacy, and with patient and public representatives. These aimed to investigate intervention implementation process and fidelity. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Consolidated Framework for Intervention Fidelity informed interview topic guides and underpinned the thematic framework analysis using a combined inductive and deductive approach. Results Themes provided information about intervention fidelity and implementation that were mapped across the sub processes of implementation: planning, execution, reflection and evaluation, and engagement. Interviewees described factors such as lack of training, awareness, clarity on the service specification, governance and monitoring and information and feedback which caused significant issues with the process of intervention implementation and suboptimal intervention fidelity. Conclusions This provides in-depth insight into the implementation process and fidelity of a ToC intervention, and the extant barriers and facilitators. The findings offer learning to inform the design and implementation of similar interventions, contribute to the evidence base about barriers and facilitators to such interventions and provides in-depth description of the implementation and mechanisms of impact which have the potential to influence clinical and economic outcome evaluation.

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