reproductive age
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 638-641
I D Chaurasia ◽  
Yogita Chaurasia

To analyse the demographics and presenting features of patients presenting with optic neuritis and papillitis. Clinical profiles of 40 patients presenting with optic neuritis and papillitis at a tertiary care center were collected retrospectively and prospectively. Detailed medical and ophthalmic history was taken especially about mode, duration and course of the disease, drug intake, alcoholism, smoking, pregnancy, lactation, convulsions, pyrexia, history suggestive of TB, syphilis, neurological deficit. A comprehensive ophthalmological and neurological evaluation was done for each patient along with radiological work up. Patients were prospectively followed up for an average of three months. Females in the reproductive age group constituted largest number of the patients (61.8%) in the present series. Maximum patients (70%) were between 20-50 years of age. Vision was found to be affected in all the patients at presentation and most of them presented with vision CF or HM (35.4% and 29.25% respectively) while 4 patients had complete loss of vision. Two third (66.7%) of patients reported eye pain at presentation. Abnormal pupillary reaction was found in most patients with the most common being RAPD on swinging flash light which was seen in 85.4%. Equal percentage (39.5%) of patients presented with Blurred Hyperemic (BH) disc and ophthalmoscopically normal appearing disc. Onset and progression of disease was found to be rapid in most cases ranging from few hours to days. Visual recovery post treatment was found to be good with most eyes achieving vision 6/24 or better. Optic neuritis has varied clinical presentations. Most of our patients were young to middle aged females. The most common presenting features were decrease in vision ranging from slight to profound, eye pain and abnormal pupillary reaction. Morphological abnormalities in appearance of optic disc were also found in two third of cases.Rapid progression was noted in almost all cases. Most of the cases achieved a good outcome at the end of follow up period.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262431
Sewunet Sako Shagaro ◽  
Teshale Fikadu Gebabo ◽  
Be’emnet Tekabe Mulugeta

Background Modern contraceptive method is a product or medical procedure that interferes with reproduction from acts of sexual intercourse. Globally in 2019, 44% of women of reproductive age were using a modern method of contraception but it was 29% in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the main aim of this analysis was to assess the prevalence of modern contraceptive utilization and associated factors among married women in Ethiopia. Method The current study used the 2019 Ethiopia mini demographic and health survey dataset. Both descriptive and multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression analysis were done using STATA version 14. A p-value of less than 0.05 and an adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval were used to report statistically significant factors with modern contraceptive utilization. Result The overall modern contraceptive utilization among married women in Ethiopia was 38.7% (95% CI: 37.3% to 40.0%). Among the modern contraceptive methods, injectables were the most widely utilized modern contraceptive method (22.82%) followed by implants (9.65%) and pills (2.71%). Maternal age, educational level, wealth index, number of living children, number of births in the last three years, number of under 5 children in the household, religion, and geographic region were independent predictors of modern contraceptive utilization. Conclusion In the current study only four out of ten married non-pregnant women of reproductive age utilized modern contraceptive methods. Furthermore, the study has identified both individual and community-level factors that can affect the utilization of modern contraceptive methods by married women in the country. Therefore, concerned bodies need to improve access to reproductive health services, empower women through community-based approaches, and minimize region wise discrepancy to optimize the utilization.

2022 ◽  
Matthew Dapas ◽  
Andrea Dunaif

Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is among the most common disorders of reproductive-age women, affecting up to 15% worldwide, depending on the diagnostic criteria. PCOS is characterized by a constellation of interrelated reproductive abnormalities including disordered gonadotropin secretion, increased androgen production, chronic anovulation, and polycystic ovarian morphology. It is frequently associated with insulin resistance and obesity. These reproductive and metabolic derangements cause major morbidities across the lifespan, including anovulatory infertility and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite decades of investigative effort, the etiology of PCOS remains unknown. Familial clustering of PCOS cases has indicated a genetic contribution to PCOS. There are rare Mendelian forms of PCOS associated with extreme phenotypes, but PCOS typically follows a non-Mendelian pattern of inheritance consistent with a complex genetic architecture, analogous to T2D and obesity, that reflects the interaction of susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Genomic studies of PCOS have provided important insights into disease pathways and have indicated that current diagnostic criteria do not capture underlying differences in biology associated with different forms of PCOS. We provide a state-of-the-science review of genetic analyses of PCOS, including an overview of genomic methodologies aimed at a general audience of non-geneticists and clinicians. Applications in PCOS will be discussed, including strengths and limitations of each study. The contributions of environmental factors, including developmental origins, will be reviewed. Insights into the pathogenesis and genetic architecture of PCOS will be summarized. Future directions for PCOS genetic studies will be outlined.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Heather M. Marlow ◽  
Michael Kunnuji ◽  
Adenike Esiet ◽  
Funsho Bukoye ◽  
Chimaraoke Izugbara

In humanitarian settings, ~35 million girls and young women of reproductive age (15–24) are in urgent need of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. Young women and girls in humanitarian contexts are particularly vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, gender-based violence, and early and forced marriage. We sought to understand girls' and young women's experiences with unwanted pregnancy, abortion, contraception, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), gender-based violence (GBV), and forced marriage in an IDP camp in Northeastern Nigeria. We conducted 25 in-depth interviews with girls aged 15–19 (N = 13; 8 single and 5 married) and young women aged 20–24 (N = 12; 3 single and 9 married). All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The participants in our study fled from and witnessed violence to arrive in the IDP camp with little material support. Lack of necessities, especially food, has driven many to sex in exchange for goods or into forced marriages. This, in turn, leads to increased unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Participants had limited knowledge about contraception, and some information about SRH services available in the camp, but overall, knowledge and utilization of SRH services was low.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-05
Armine V. Grigoryan ◽  
Alexander B. Blazhev ◽  
Tatyana M. Betova ◽  
Aneliya A. Dimitrova

Estradiol is an estrogen steroid hormone and is produced basically within the follicles of the ovaries. The decrease in serum estrogens concentration at menopause disrupts the metabolic balance, changes the lipid profile leading to visceral obesity, which caused an increase in serum estradiol levels, through aromatase activity. Estrogen deficiency also is a reason for the development of osteoporosis.We investigated the serum estradiol levels and changes in bone alpha estrogen receptor expression in ovariectomized rats. For this purpose, we used 20 female Wistar rats at reproductive age - 2 months divided into 2 groups: group 1 (G1)-10 animals were ovariectomized and group 2 (G2)-10 of which were sham-operated. All animals of G1 showed weight gain compared to group G2. The results showed that the values of serum 17β-estradiol in rats of G1 statistically increased compared to G2 (p <0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed no difference in estrogen receptor expression between the both groups. Histomorphological analysis of femur from G1 showed the presence of pronounced osteoporosis. Ovariectomy led to the development of obesity, which caused an increase in serum estradiol levels, through aromatase activity, but this process did not prevent bone tissue from developing osteoporosis.

2022 ◽  
Asiyeh Maleki ◽  
Leila Pourali

Labial adhesion usually occurs in the infancy period and in prepubertal girls. It is a rare entity in reproductive age without any hypoestrogenism condition. Voiding dysfunction is a rare manifestation of these conditions. Here, we report a 19-year-old girl with complete labial adhesion presented with urinary retention. A 19-year-old virgin girl was referred to the obstetrics and gynecology department of Ghaem Hospital. She complained of urinary retention. Physical examination was normal except that was moderate hypogastric tenderness and a huge vesical globe. Genital examination revealed complete fusion of the labia minora in the midline, extended from the posterior fourchette to the region of the clitoris covering the entire vaginal introitus, urethral meatus, and clitoris. Despite the use of topical estrogen cream and surgical labial separation, re-adhesion occurred for the third time. Vulvar biopsy confirmed severe inflammation. Finally, topical anti-inflammatory medication improved the symptoms. Although labial adhesion is very rare in the post-pubertal period, it can successfully be managed by medical and surgical treatment.

2022 ◽  
Umesh Kumar ◽  
Digumarthi V S Sudhakar ◽  
Nithyapriya Kumar ◽  
Hanuman T Kale ◽  
Rajan Kumar Jha ◽  

AbstractThe recent epidemiological studies suggest that nearly one out of every 7 reproductive age couples face problem to conceive a child after trying for at least one year. Impaired fertility of the male partner is causative in approximately 50% of the infertile couples. However, the etiologies of large proportion of male infertility are still unclear. Our unpublished exome sequencing data identified several novel genes including TEX13B, which motivated us to further explore the role of TEX13B in male infertility in large infertile case control cohort. Hence in this study, we have examined the role of TEX13B in male infertility by whole gene sequencing 628 infertile and 427 control men and have demonstrated the functional role of Tex13b in spermatogonia GC1spg (GC1) cells. We identified 2 variants on TEX13B which are tightly associated with male infertility. TEX13B gene exclusively expressed in germ cells, but its molecular functions in germ cells are still unknown. Hence, we demonstrated the functional importance of Tex13b in GC1 cell line by genomic manipulation via CRISPR-Cas9 and mass spectrometry-based whole cell proteomics. The gene knock out in GC1 cell line clearly shows that Tex13b play an important role in germ cell growth and morphology. We demonstrate that Tex13b knockout or conditional overexpression in GC1 cells reprograms the metabolic status from an oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis state and vice versa. In conclusion, our study clearly showed the importance of Tex13b in germ cells development and Its association with male infertility.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 289
Aiperi Otunchieva ◽  
Jamila Smanalieva ◽  
Angelika Ploeger

Dietary diversity and adequate nutrient intake are essential for conducting a healthy life. However, women in low-income settings often face difficulties in ensuring dietary quality. This research assessed relationships between the dietary diversity, nutrient adequacy, and socio-economic factors among women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kyrgyzstan. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in four locations, including two rural and two urban areas in the north and south of Kyrgyzstan. A survey with pre-coded and open-ended questions was employed during the interviews of 423 WRAs aged 18–49. Data collection was conducted in March–May 2021. The average value body mass index (BMI) of WRA was 24.2 ± 4.6 kg/m2. The dietary diversity score (DDS) was higher among rural women (common language effect size) cles = 0.67, adjusted p < 0.001) in the northern region (cles = 0.61, p < 0.05) who have cropland (cles = 0.60, p < 0.001) and a farm animal (cles = 0.60, p < 0.05). Mean nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) was below 1 in most micronutrients, whereas thiamine, riboflavin, vitamins B6 and C, folic acid, calcium, and magnesium were even lower than 0.5. Women with a kitchen garden or a cropland had better NAR energy (cles = 0.57), NAR carbohydrate (cles = 0.60), NAR fiber (cles = 0.60), NAR vitamin B1 (cles = 0.53), and NAR folic acid (cles = 0.54). Respondents who receive remittances and a farm animal have better NARs for energy, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamin B1, folic acid, iron, zinc, and mean adequacy ratio for 16 nutrients (MAR 16) than those who do not. Education and income have a negative correlation with dietary quality. This study contributes to the limited literature on the quality of diets in Kyrgyzstan. Hidden hunger and undernutrition are a severe problem among WRA in low-income settings. Recommendations are including study programs in nutrition, teaching households farming practices, and raising awareness on adequate nutrition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Quraish Sserwanja ◽  
Linet M. Mutisya ◽  
Milton W. Musaba

Abstract Background Early initiation of antenatal care (ANC) within the first trimester is highly recommended in the current 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Mass media has the potential to promote early initiation of ANC because it has been used successfully in several programs. However, there is paucity of literature on the effect of exposure to different types of media on the timing of ANC initiation in Uganda. Our study aimed at exploring associations between exposure to different types of mass media and timing of ANC initiation among women in Uganda. Methods We used a cross sectional study design, to conduct a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS). We included weighted data of all the 10,152 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). Multistage stratified sampling was used to select study participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between exposure to different types of mass media and early initiation of ANC. Results Almost a third of the women (2953/10,152, 29.1%, 95% CI 27.9–29.6) initiated their first ANC contact in the first trimester. Women who listened to radio at least once a week (adjusted OR (aOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.30) and those who watched television less than once a week (aOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.07–1.53) had higher odds of initiating ANC earlier compared to their counterparts not exposed to radio and television respectively. Conclusion Exposure to radio and television is associated with timing of ANC initiation in Uganda. Importantly, the two types of mass media have the potential to reach women with low levels of education and encourage them to utilize maternal health services. The Ugandan government needs to prioritize and intensify the use of radio and television to promote the benefits associated with timing of ANC initiation.

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